Antony T. Sullivan [email@example.com] is a distinguished senior scholar who holds an honorary position as an Associate at the Center for Middle Eastern and North African Studies at the University of Michigan. Before his retirement in 2000, Dr. Sullivan was affiliated for 30 years with Earhart Foundation (Ann Arbor, Michigan), most recently as Director of Program and Corporate Secretary. From 1962-1967 Dr. Sullivan taught at International College (Beirut, Lebanon). Dr. Sullivan received his BA from Yale (1960), his MA from Columbia (1961), and his Ph. D from the University of Michigan (1976) in European history and Middle Eastern Studies. He has written two books and some 80 articles and reviews, and has lectured widely at universities in the United States and abroad. Over the past three decades he has traveled frequently to the Middle East in connection with his professional responsibilities and research interests.