Peshawar Church Attack Latest Taliban Atrocity
by Sheila Musaji
There has been another heartbreaking, criminal attack on a Christian Church in Peshawar, Pakistan leaving many dead and injured innocent Christians. In the last few years, Pakistan has seen attacks on Shia mosques, Sufi shrines, Christian churches and communities, and on any Muslims who refuse to accept the distorted worldview of the Taliban.
On TAM we have a lengthy collection of fatwas, statements by scholars and community activists, from America and around the world, condemning extremism and terrorism titled Muslim Voices Against Extremism and Terrorism . We also have a collection of articles titled How mainstream Muslims understand the term “jihad”. Muslim have been speaking out against this criminal element among Muslims falsely claiming Islamic justification for their crimes for many years. Type church, Christian, Pakistan, condemn, fatwa, taliban, lunatic fringe and other related terms into the TAM search engine and many articles condemning the Taliban and their criminal activities will come up. The Taliban are part of the Muslim lunatic fringe, and like Al Shabab, Boko Haram, Al Qaeda, and other such extremist groups they are criminal terrorists not jihadis.
The increasing acts of violence carried out against Christian minorities by the Taliban and other groups in Pakistan, Egypt, Iraq, Malaysia, and other countries are reprehensible and totally against any Islamic principles. The TAM article Protecting Religious Minorities & Houses of Worship a Duty for Muslims lays out in detail the actual Islamic teachings, and why such actions are against Islam and Sharia.
The Qur’an says:
“For had it not been for Allah’s repelling some men by means of others, cloisters and churches and oratories and mosques, wherein the name of God is oft mentioned, would assuredly have been pulled down.” — Qur’an 22:40
How is it possible that any group claiming to be Muslims can be the ones pulling down those churches? How is it possible that anyone claiming any religious belief could not feel compassion or could attempt to justify such violence against innocent human beings? How is it possible that any human being could not feel shame at carrying out such evil acts?
These individuals have forgotten Prophet Muhammad’s Charter to the Monks of St. Catherine’s Monastery:
This is a message from Muhammad ibn Abdullah, as a covenant to those who adopt Christianity, near and far, we are with them.
Verily I, the servants, the helpers, and my followers defend them, because Christians are my citizens; and by Allah! I hold out against anything that displeases them.
No compulsion is to be on them.
Neither are their judges to be removed from their jobs nor their monks from their monasteries.
No one is to destroy a house of their religion, to damage it, or to carry anything from it to the Muslims’ houses.
Should anyone take any of these, he would spoil God’s covenant and disobey His Prophet. Verily, they are my allies and have my secure charter against all that they hate.
No one is to force them to travel or to oblige them to fight.
The Muslims are to fight for them.
If a female Christian is married to a Muslim, it is not to take place without her approval. She is not to be prevented from visiting her church to pray.
Their churches are to be respected. They are neither to be prevented from repairing them nor the sacredness of their covenants.
No one of the nation (Muslims) is to disobey the covenant till the Last Day (end of the world).
The following are a few relevant verses from the Qur’an, and hadiths that speak to the issues involved. Whoever these Muslims are who are engaged in these acts, they are not following anything that can be recognized as traditional Islam:
Whosoever sees an evil, then let him change it with his hand. If he is not able, then with his tongue. And if he is not able to do that, then with his heart and that is the weakest of belief. [Muslim, no. 49]
When the people see an evil and they do not try to change it, then Allaah will cover them all with humiliation from Himself. [Abu Dawood, no. 4338
By He in Whose Hand is my soul! You will enjoin righteousness and forbid evil, or Allaah will send a punishment on you from Him. Then, you will supplicate to Him, but He will not accept your supplication. (Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi)
“Let there be no compulsion in religion. Truth stands out clear from error.”(2:255)
“Those who believe (in the Qur’an), and those who follow the Jewish (scriptures), and the Christians, and the Sabians, any who believe in God and the Last day, and work righteousness, shall have their reward with their Lord. On them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.” (2:62)
“[But] they are not all alike: among the followers of earlier revelation there are upright people, who recite God’s messages throughout the night, and prostrate themselves [before Him]. They believe in God and the Last Day, and enjoin the doing of what is right and forbid the doing of what is wrong, and vie with one another in doing good works: and these are among the righteous.” (3:113-114)
“O you who believe! Stand firmly for justice, as witnesses to God, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be (against) rich or poor; for God can best protect both. Follow not the lust (of your hearts), lest ye swerve, and if ye distort (justice) or decline to do justice, verily God is well acquainted with all that ye do”. (4:135)
”O you who believe! Stand out firmly for God, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just; that is next to piety; and fear God. For God is well acquainted with all that ye do”. (5:9)
“To each among you have We prescribed a law and a way. If Allah had so willed, He would have made of you one single community, but Compete with each other in good deeds. The return of you all is to Allah. (His plan is) to test you in what He has given you. So compete with each other in good deeds. The return of you all is to Allah; then He will inform you about the matters over which you used to differ.” (5:48)
“Whoever receives guidance receives it for his own benefit, and whoever goes astray does so to his own loss. No bearer of burdens can bear the burdens of another.” (17:15)
“If it had been the Lord?s will, they would all have believed ? all who are on the earth. Will you then compel mankind against their will, to believe?” (10:99)
“…If God had not driven some people back by means of others, monasteries, churches, synagogues and mosques, where God’s name is mentioned much, would have been pulled down and destroyed. God will certainly help those who help Him—God is All-Strong, Almighty.” (22:40)
“And do not dispute with the followers of the Book except by what is best, except those of them who act unjustly, and say: We believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you, and our Allah and your Allah is One, and to Him do we submit.” [29:46]
“As for such [of the unbelievers] as do not fight against you on account of [your] faith, and neither drive you forth from your homelands, God does not forbid you to show them kindness and to behave towards them with full equity: for, verily, God loves those who act equitably.” [60:8]
This particular attack on the Church is Peshawar has been widely condemned by Muslims across the world, and in Pakistan. The Karimia Institute reports:
We condemn the killing of Pakistani Christians by Taliban Suicide bombers. The All Saints Church is located in Kohati Gate in the city’s old quarter of Peshawar. Numerous militant attacks have occurred in this area over recent years, mostly targeting Muslims.
Pakistan’s Imams, scholars and religious leaders have condemned the attack and their representative body “The Ulema council of Pakistan ” said “ We are standing with our Christian brothers in this tragedy.” The killing of innocent people is the most heinous crime and the biggest sin against humanity. We express our solidarity with all Christians and ask everyone to pray for peace and security in Pakistan. — Dr. Musharraf Hussain OBE,Dl, Chief Imam, Karimia Institute
A Pakistani paper, The Nation reported:
... in FAISALABAD, the Pakistan Ulema Council (PUC) strongly condemns the attack on a church in Peshawar, saying that all Muslims standing shoulder-to-shoulder with the Christian community in this time of grief. Such attacks have nothing to do with Islam or Pakistan. PUC Central Chairman Hafiz Muhammad Tahir Mahmood Ashrafi and Central Secretary General Sahibzada Zahid Mahmood Qasmi said that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) had provided protection to the lives and properties of non-Muslims living in a Muslim state, and we are bound to follow his commandments. “Powers that want confrontation between different religions try to exploit such incidents to their advantage,” they added.
They emphasised that Pakistan belonged to all of us and it was the responsibility of Muslims to provide protection to minorities living here. The attack in Peshawar was a matter of shame for the entire nation and we believe that the government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa showed extreme negligence. It should resign over this incident,” they said. They said that Muslims were also not safe in Pakistan, but this should not be used as a justification to tolerate attacks on non-Muslims. They demanded the chief justice of Pakistan to immediately take suo moto notice of the Peshawar incident and conduct hearings to find out the truth behind the attack. They said that a delegation of the PUC had been sent to Peshawar to express solidarity with the Christian community over this incident.
The Nation also reported that “TheTaliban movement claimed responsibility, saying it had set up a new faction, Junood ul-Hifsa, to kill foreigners to avenge US drone strikes on Taliban and Al-Qaeda operatives. “We carried out the suicide bombings at Peshawar church and will continue to strike foreigners and non-Muslims until drone attacks stop,” Ahmad Marwat, a spokesman for the group, told AFP by telephone.”
And, although it is clear that the overwhelming majority of Muslim scholars and ordinary Muslims reject extremism and terrorism, and have condemned each and every act carried out by criminal terrorists, they continue in this criminal behavior. Obviously, groups like al-Shabab, al-Qaeda, Boko Haram, the Taliban, etc. really don’t care what Muslim scholars or the majority of ordinary Muslims have to say. They continue to attempt to justify or cloak their criminal activities by claiming an Islamic justification that doesn’t exist in reality. And, they are as likely to kill Muslims as non-Muslims because their fanatical views see everyone who doesn’t share their views as the enemy.
As I said in a previous article about another criminal group:
... How dare these criminals call themselves “Mujahideen” or even Muslims. There is no justification for such actions in Islam. How dare they call this jihad. How dare they include any term related to Islam in the name of their criminal enterprise.
To repeat what mainstream Muslims feel about this despicable crime. As Muslims, we strongly condemn this terrorist attack which caused the death and injury of innocent people. We extend our heartfelt condolences and sympathies to the families, relatives and friends of the victims. Most Muslims don’t accept criminals or terrorists defining themselves as “jihadis”, we strongly object to their use of this term for criminal acts of hirabah. Extremists and terrorists do not have the right to co-opt or hijack or defame the term jihad by their criminal interpretations. We reject the extremist/terrorist definition of Jihad in favor of the traditional, legitimate, respectable, spiritual concept.
Al-Shabab, Al-Qaeda, Boko Haram, the Taliban or any Muslims engaged in or defending terrorism, or attacks on civilians are not engaged in jihad but in HIRABAH, no matter what their self definition. The use of the term jihad to describe acts that are reprehensible is an attempt to justify unjustifiable actions. They may be Muslims, but their actions have nothing to do with Islam. Muslim extremists are attacking minority communities, including Shia, Ahmadi, Christians, Sikhs, Sufis, etc. Even in countries where communities have lived together in relative peace for centuries, there is now a lack of tolerance, and even violence towards minorities. In Pakistan, whose “Quaidi Azam” or great leader and founding father, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, was a Shia, the Shia are now undergoing intense persecution.
Muslim communities need to ask themselves where this strain of extremism is coming from, who is promoting it, and why are so many being radicalized in spite of the clear teachings of Islam? Who is teaching this perversion of Islam and why are young people listening to them instead of the overwhelming majority of traditional scholars? What has changed in the last few decades, and how can ordinary Muslims counter this perversion of Islam in a meaningful way?
John L. Esposito’s excellent article Combating Muslim Intolerance is a must read. As a Christian scholar who has studied Islam in depth and has been a good friend to the American Muslim community, his words need to be considered as an example of an individual who is standing firmly for justice. Here are a few highlights from that article:
”Recent attacks against Coptic Christians in Egypt and firebomb attacks on churches in Malaysia have raised major concerns about deteriorating rights and security for religious minorities in Muslim countries. In the twenty-first century, Muslims are strongly challenged to move beyond older notions of “tolerance” or “co-existence” to a higher level of religious pluralism based on mutual understanding and respect. Regrettably, a significant number of Muslims, like very conservative and fundamentalist Christians and Jews, are not pluralistic but rather strongly exclusivist in their attitudes towards other faiths and even co-believers with whom they disagree.”
”A key Islamic debate today over pluralism and tolerance involves use of past doctrine to address current realities. Many want to reinstate the “protected” (dhimmi) status in which Christians and Jews could practice their faith and be guided by their religious leaders in exchange for payment of a tax. Although in the past this was progressive compared to Christian practice, in today’s modern nation state, it amounts to second class citizenship. Other Muslims insist that non-Muslims be afforded full citizenship rights, maintaining that pluralism is the essence of Islam, rather than a purely Western invention or ideology. They emphasize that the Quran envisions a pluralistic world, mutual understanding and religious tolerance for Jews and Christians,“People of the Book,” who have also received a revelation and a scripture from God (the Torah for Jews and the Gospels for Christians), a recognition that in later centuries was extended to other faiths.”
”Religious tolerance and equality of citizenship remain fragile both in secular Muslim countries like Egypt and Turkey or self-styled Islamic states and republics in Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Iran—states which too often limit the rights of non-Muslims, tolerate religious intolerance of other faiths or of other Muslims with different Islamic interpretations. Substantive change can only come with strong leadership from government and religious leaders and government legislation; seminary and university curriculum in religious, particularly comparative religion courses, to counter religious exclusivism by instilling more pluralistic and tolerant visions and values in the next generation of imams, priests, scholars and the general public.”
”Finally, religious discrimination, conflict and violence cut across all the world’s religions affecting Muslim minorities in the Philippines, Thailand, Greece, Croatia, Serbia, India, and Jews and Muslims in Europe and America where Islamophobia and ant-Semitism are on the increase. To more effectively address critical issues of religious freedom, a more ad hoc, rapid response mechanism must be initiated. Modern technology and communications can be used as a more powerful tool for major religious leaders and organizations of all faiths. They need more initiatives to join together, condemning all forms of discrimination, intolerance and oppression against ethnic and religious minorities. Together they can speak out whenever and wherever abuses occur, whether it be their own religion or government or someone else’s that is the oppressor or the victim. ... Millions of Egyptians changed their Facebook profile pictures to the image of a cross within a crescent – the symbol of an “Egypt for All”. Around the city, banners went up calling for unity, and depicting mosques and churches, crosses and crescents, together as one. ”
The position of religious minority communities worldwide have all reflected this cyclical pattern of periods of tolerance (e.g. Andalucia) punctuated by outbursts of prejudice and violence (e.g. the holocaust and the Bosnian genocide). At this point in time we are in the middle of a cycle of mutual suspicion, conflict, animosity, and even hatred among various religious communities. We need to work towards reconciliation instead of conflict.
It is to be hoped that what will inform future relationships are efforts such as A Common Word, or The Arab Group for Christian Muslim Dialogue or Karen Armstrong’s Charter for Compassion and the original tolerant message of Prophet Muhammad, and not a continuation of centuries of retaliation and revenge - as Gandhi said an eye for an eye and soon everyone will be blind. We must work for peace and harmony, for mutual respect, and for justice. And, as Hans Kung has warned, there can be no world peace without peace among the religions.
A statement by the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) on previous anti-Christian riots in Pakistan still holds true:
“ISNA is appalled at the news of the riots in Gojra Pakistan in which several homes belonging to the members of Christian community were destroyed and about seven people were killed. This frenzy of fanaticism cannot be associated with any faith. The perpetrators have betrayed a brutal outrage and demeaned themselves as Quran describes asfala safileen (95:5),“the lowest of the low”. Not only do we express our outrage at this behavior as inhuman, we deplore those interpreters of Islam and religious leaders who use a rhetoric that promotes a false sense of insecurity and paranoid in Muslim mobs.
ISNA holds the law and order authorities in the region responsible for these tragic riots. Pakistani government should take the responsibility, apologize to the victims for its failure to provide protection, bring the perpetrators to justice, and provide relief and support to victims. Muslims of Pakistan should collectively rise to the occasion , demonstrate their sympathy and solidarity with the affected members of the Christian community and raise funds to rebuild the Church that has been destroyed.
The insult of Quran, real or rumored is being exaggerated to incite the passions of the common people. This shameful behavior does not do justice to the healing message of respect and love for Christians and people of other faiths given by the Quran. The way to uphold the respect for the Quran is to show the Quranic respect for religious diversity and solidarity with the poor and the week.
ISNA congratulates and takes pride in its Muslim members who raised funds to repair the damaged Church in Pakistan sometime back. We at ISNA stand committed to promote peace and harmony, with other faiths and will be willing to work with other organizations, individuals of all faiths to bring relief healing and comfort to the region.”
Last year, the Muslim Public Affairs Council (MPAC) brought together a panel of scholars and human rights advocates to discuss the realities of religious minorities in Muslim-majority countries. The title of this conference was “Minority Rights in Muslim Countries: Majority Rule NOT Majority Tyranny”. Last year, ISNA worked with Authorities in N. Africa to Develop Protocols to Protect Religious Minorities.
We now need a strong statement that covers all such incidents and that is not only signed onto by all the national organizations, but also talked about in our local mosques. The American Muslim community needs to be encouraged to speak out and use their influence in coordinated letter writing and even boycott campaigns to make our voices heard. It is at least possible that the weight of the voices of the American Muslim community might have some impact in these countries. Perhaps, if our national organizations put together a delegation to travel to the countries affected by this awful sectarian violence and speak directly with local leaders, that might have some impact. We Must Find a Way to Counter Religious Violence Before it Sweeps Us All Away!
The Allah-God controversy in Malaysia, Erik Winkel http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the_allah_god_controversy_in_malaysia/
American Muslims Collecting Funds to Help Repair Damaged Churches in Palestine http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/american_muslims_collecting_funds_to_help_repair_damaged_churches_in_palest/
ANDALUSIA: Finally remembering centuries of Muslims, Jews, Christians thriving together, Len Traubman http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/andalusia_finally_remembering_centuries_of_muslims_jews_christians_thriving/
Anwar Ibrahim has issued a Statement on Malaysian Church Bombings http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/statement_on_malaysian_church_bombings/0017840
Building barriers instead of bridges, Irfan Husain http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/the-newspaper/columnists/irfan-husain-building-barriers-instead-of-bridges-310
CAIR Condemns Burning of Nigerian Churches http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/cair_condemns_burning_of_nigerian_churches/
CAIR Establishes Spirit of Islam Fund to Help Rebuild Malaysian Churches http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/cair_establishes_spirit_of_islam_fund_to_help_rebuild_malaysian_churches/0017843
Christians senselessly tormented by extremists in Muslim world, Akbar Ahmed and John Bryson Chane http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/christians_senselessly_tormented_by_extremists_in_muslim_world/
Church Bombings in Malaysia: The Politics Behind the Dilemma, Dr. Robert D. Crane http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/church_bombings_in_malaysia_the_politics_behind_the_dilemma/0017842
Combating Muslim Intolerance, John L. Esposito http://www.huffingtonpost.com/john-l-esposito/combating-muslim-intolera_b_417319.html
Despite Religious Violence, Egyptian Mosques Calling for Muslim-Christian Unity, H.A. Hellyer http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/despite_religious_violence_egyptian_mosques_calling_for_muslim-christi/
Egyptian Christians: Strangers in their Native Land!, Aladdin Elaasar http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/egyptian_christians_strangers_in_their_native_land/
Egypt’s sectarian shame, Nesrine Malik http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/belief/2010/jan/13/egypt-copts-christians-muslims
Egypt: War of Stickers: Christian Fish, Muslim Shark, Khaled Diab http://www.comeandsee.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=508
IMC-USA condemns destruction of churches in Orissa, India http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/imc_usa_condemns_destruction_of_churches_in_orissa_india/
In Egypt, Copts, Muslims and a tale of two churches, Dr H.A. Hellyer http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/in_egypt_copts_muslims_and_a_tale_of_two_churches/
Interreligious Dialogue in Morocco: Peaceful Co-existence between Divine Religions, Hind Al-Subai Al-Idrisi http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/interreligious-dialogue-in-morocco-peaceful-co-existence-between-divine-rel
Malaysia, Allah, and God , Sheila Musaji http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/malaysia_allah_and_god/0017793
Malaysia, Allah, and God, Part II, Dr. Robert D. Crane http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/malaysia_allah_and_god_part_ii/
Malaysia Catholics allowed to call God ‘Allah’ again. Why the fuss? http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Global-News/2010/0104/Malaysia-Catholics-allowed-to-call-God-Allah-again.-Why-the-fuss
Malaysia: Government Appeals Ruling on ‘Allah’ Use http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/05/world/asia/05briefs-Malaysia.html
The Military’s Attack on Egypt’s Copts: A Call for Civil War, Joseph Mayton http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the-militarys-attack-on-egypts-copts-a-call-for-civil-war
Mufti Ali Gomaa, and Religious and Political Toleration in Egypt, Mohammad Fadel http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/mufti-ali-jumua-and-religious-and-political-toleration-in-egypt
Muslim Experts Expose Realities of Religious Minorities in Muslim-Majority Countries, MPAC http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/experts-expose-realities-of-religious-minorities-in-muslim-majority-countri
Prophet Muhammad’s Promise to Christians, Muqtedar Khan http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/prophet_muhammads_promise_to_christians/
Muslim-Christian Relations in Egypt: “We Are One People” http://en.qantara.de/webcom/show_article.php/_c-308/_nr-45/i.html
Muslim Experts Expose Realities of Religious Minorities in Muslim-Majority Countries, MPAC http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/experts-expose-realities-of-religious-minorities-in-muslim-majority-countri
Muslim groups in Malaysia are offering their help to prevent any further attacks on Christian places of worship http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&cid=1262372217702&pagename=Zone-English-News/NWELayout#ixzz0cbJeDsYZ
Muslims are Failing to Call for Minority Rights in the Islamic Countries, Anjum Jaleel http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/muslims_are_failing_to_call_for_minority_rights_in_the_islamic_countries/
The Rubber Hits the Road: Shaykh al Azhar says Human Rights are an “Internal Affair”, Dr. Robert D. Crane http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the_rubber_hits_the_road_shaykh_al_azhar_says_human_rights_are_an_inte/
Safeguarding religion in Egypt for the wrong reasons, Abdallah Schleifer http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/safeguarding-religion-in-egypt-for-the-wrong-reasons
Taking a Stand against Terror with Crucifix and Koran, Karim El-Gawhary http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/taking_a_stand_against_terror_with_crucifix_and_koran/0018337
Were Christians Forced to Pay The Jizyah to Spare Their Lives?, Sheikh Ali Gomaa http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/were-christians-forced-to-pay-the-jizyah-to-spare-their-lives
Zaid calls for inter-faith council in wake of church attacks http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/index.php/malaysia/49169-zaid-calls-for-inter-faith-council-in-wake-of-church-attacks-
ARTICLES DISCUSSING THE MEANING OF JIHAD
This list of articles, primarily by Muslims, should be very helpful in understanding how Muslims understand the term, and how they feel about its’ misuse by both terrorists and Islamophobes:
A Call to Harabah, Aziz Poonawalla http://www.altmuslim.com/a/a/a/2083/
A Christian jihad?, Khaled Diab http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/a_christian_jihad
A detailed fatwa - Defending the Transgressed by Censuring the Reckless against the Killing of Civilians, Shaykh Muhammad Afifi al-Akiti http://www.mereislam.info/articles/Defending-the-Transgressed_Shaykh-M-A-Al-Akiti.pdf
A Message to American Muslims, Imam Tammad Adi http://www.islamfortoday.com/adi04.htm
A Muslim Sage Visits the USA by M. Shahid Alam (Mulla Nasruddin stories on the topic of 9/11) http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2003sept_comments.php?id=383_0_22_0_C
A Spiritual Jihad Against Terrorism (5 parts), Sheila Musaji http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/a_spiritual_jihad_against_terrorism_part_i
A Terrorist By Any Other Name, Jane Chastain http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=27095
A Time for Introspection: “The worst enemies of Islam are from within”, Hamza Yusuf http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/a_time_for_introspection_the_worst_enemies_of_islam_are_from_within/
A World Out of Touch With Itself, Rabbi Michael Lerner, http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2002sept_comments.php?id=75_0_14_0_C
A Memo to American Muslims, M.A. Muqtedar Khan, http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2002jan_comments.php?id=170_0_7_0_C
A Muslims anguish in the Midst of the Attack on America, A. Rashied Omar, http://theamericanmuslim.org/2002sept_comments.php?id=103_0_14_0_C
A Time for Renewal, Ali Ahmed Minai, http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2002sept_comments.php?id=107_0_14_0_C
Against the Nihilism of Terror: Jihad as Testimony to Transcendence, S. Parvez Manzoor http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/terrorism_against_the_nihilism_of_terror_jihad_as_testimony_to_transcendenc
America as a Jihad State: Middle Eastern perceptions of modern American theopolitics, Abdal-Hakim Murad http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/america_as_a_jihad_state_middle_eastern_perceptions_of_modern_american
American Muslims Have A Special Obligation, Ingrid Mattson, http://www.beliefnet.com/story/89/story_8987_1.html
American Muslims and Scholars Denounce Terrorism, Statement from Center for the Study of Islam and Democracy, http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2002sept_comments.php?id=132_0_14_0_C
America’s Tragedy, Shaykh Hamza Yusuf http://www.zaytuna.org/tragedy.html
The Amman Initiative: A Theological Counter-Attack Against Terrorism, S. Abdallah Schleifer http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the_amman_initiative_a_theological_counter_attack_against_terrorism/
An Open Letter to America and the World, Asma’el Muhaiyaddeen, http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2002sept_comments.php?id=70_0_14_0_C
An American Prayer to Remember September 11th, Omar Ricci, http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2002sept_comments.php?id=68_0_14_0_C
Attitudes of Ignorance, Parvez Ahmed http://www.iviews.com/Articles/articles.asp?ref=CD0408-2420
Beware of Injustice: It’s Hell, Mahbubur Rehman http://www.islamicity.com/articles/Articles.asp?ref=IC0309-2095
Bin Laden’s Violence is a Heresy Against Islam, Abdal-Hakim Murad, http://www.islamfortoday.com/murad04.htm
Bin Laden’s Fatwa: A Call to Harabah, Aziz H. Poonawalla, http://theamericanmuslim.org/2003march_comments.php?id=269_0_18_0_C
Bringing Back Real Islam, Fuad Nahdi http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,1187183,00.html
The Call to Jihad, Tariq Ramadan http://www.tariqramadan.com/spip.php?article65
Clarifications About the Concept of Jihad in Islam, Maulvi Yahya Nomani (tr. Yoginder Sikand) http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/clarifications_about_the_concept_of_jihad_in_islam
Combatting Terrorism, M. Shahid Alam, http://www.islam21.net/pages/keyissues/key7-9.htm
The Concept of Jihad in Islam By Maulana Wahiduddin Khan, (tr. by Yoginder Sikand) http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the_concept_of_jihad_in_islam_by_maulana_wahiduddin_khan
Counterterrorism, M.A. Muqtedar Khan http://www.mpac.org/news_article_display.aspx?ITEM=224
Creating Common Platforms Between Muslim and Western Societies to Tackle Extremist Discourse,
S. Abdallah Schleifer http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/creating_common_platforms_between_muslim_and_western_societies_to_tack
“Creative Destruction”: Exposing the Ideological Roots of Modern Terrorism, Dr. Robert Dickson Crane http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/creative_destruction_exposing_the_ideological_roots_of_modern_terrorism/
Dare I say “Jihad”, Jeff Siddiqui http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/dare_i_say_jihad
Dept. of Homeland Security Urges Caution With Words http://www.cnn.com/2008/US/05/30/terrorist.terms/
Deviations in the Concept and Practice of Jihad, Maulana Waris Mazhari (tr. Yoginder Sikand) http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/deviations_in_the_concept_and_practice_of_jihad1
Dialectics of Terror by M. Shahid Alam http://theamericanmuslim.org/2003sept_comments.php?id=386_0_22_0_C
The Evolution of ‘Jihad’ in Islamist Political Discourse, Farish A. Noor http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the_evolution_of_jihad_in_islamist_political_discourse
From Defensive to Offensive Warfare:The Use and Abuse of Jihad in the Muslim World, Dr. Abdulaziz Sachedina http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/from_defensive_to_offensive_warfarethe_use_and_abuse_of_jihad_in_the_muslim
Harvard Jihad Speech Controversy, Sheila Musaji http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/6_2002_harvard_jihad_speech_controversy
Hirabah - Jihad - Terrorism - Violence - Just War - Crusades (TAM article collection) http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/hirabah_jihad_terrorism_violence_just_war_crusades
Hirabah versus Jihad, Dr. Robert D. Crane http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/terrorism_hirabah_versus_jihad
Hirabah versus Jihad: Rescuing Jihad from The al Qaeda Blasphemy, Jim Guirard http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/terrorism_hirabah_versus_jihad_rescuing_jihad_from_the_al_qaeda_blasphemy
Home-grown imams fight home-grown extremism, Aftab Ahmad Malik http://www.altmuslim.com/a/a/a/2707/
How Muslim Americans Really Responded to the Events of 9/11, Riad Abdelkarim & Jason Erb, http://www.counterpunch.org/riad0907.html
Interpretation and Exceptionalism, Asma Barlas, http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/interpretation_and_exceptionalism
Interpreting the Islamic Ethics of War and Peace, Sohail H. Hashmi, http://www.elca.org/jle/articles/contemporary_issues/article.hashmi_sohail_h.html
Inventing Suicidal Jihadists, Hasan Zillur Rahim http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/inventing_suicidal_jihadists
Interview: Khaled Abou El Fadl: Jihad Gone Wrong http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/interview_khaled_abou_el_fadl_jihad_gone_wrong
Is Islam more violent than other religions?: Is the Qur’an inherently violent?, Sheila Musaji http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/response_to
Is there such a thing as religious terrorism?, Sheila Musaji http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/is_there_such_a_thing_as_religious_terrorism/
Islam Means Surrender to God, Not Violence http://www.iviews.com/Articles/articles.asp?ref=IC0409-2459
Islam, the Religion of Peace, Sr. Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/islam_the_religion_of_peace
Islam: Religion or Ideology?, Imam Zaid Shakir http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/islam_religion_or_ideology/
Islamic or Muslim Terrorism and Extremism: Are they all Contradictions in Terms?, Jeremy Henzell-Thomas http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/islamic_or_muslim_terrorism_and_extremism_are_they_all_contradictions_in_te/
Islamic Politics, Muslim Militancy and ‘Jihadist’ Movements, Maulana Waris Mazhari (tr. Yoginder Sikand) http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/islamic_politics_muslim_militancy_and_jihadist_movements
‘Islamic terrorism’ an insult that distorts reality, Jimmy E. Jones http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/islamic_terrorism_an_insult_that_distorts_reality/
It’s Not Jihad It’s Unholy Hirabah, Jim Guirard http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/terrorism_its_not_jihad_its_unholy_hirabah
Islamophobes See “Jihad” Everywhere, Sheila Musaji http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jihad-everywhere
Jewish sages on “lesser jihad” and “greater jihad”, Svend White http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jewish_sages_on_lesser_jihad_and_greater_jihad
Jihad, John Esposito http://www.aljazeerah.info/Opinion%20editorials/2003%20Opinion%20Editorials/July/18%20o/Understanding%20Islam,%20By%20John%20Esposito.htm
Jihad Against The Abuse Of Jihad, Abukar Arman http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jihad_against_the_abuse_of_jihad
The Jihad Against the Jihadis: How moderate Muslim leaders waged war on extremists—and won, Fareed Zakaria http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2010/02/11/the-jihad-against-the-jihadis.html
Jihad Against Racism, Abdul Malik Mujahid http://www.crescentlife.com/spirituality/jihad_against_racism.htm
Jihad Against Violence launched in U.K. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/jun/06/muslim-womens-group-jihad-violence
Jihad Against Violence: Muslim Women’s Struggle for Peace, WISE statement http://www.wisemuslimwomen.org/about/shuracouncil/#jihad and PDF http://www.wisemuslimwomen.org/images/uploads/Jihad_against_Violence_Digest(color).pdf
Jihad and Ethics: A Survey of the Current Literature, S. Parvez Manzoor http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jihad_and_ethics_a_survey_of_the_current_literature1
Jihad and the Modern World, Dr. Sherman Jackson http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jihad_and_the_modern_world
Jihad? But What About Other Verses in the Qur’an?, Asghar Ali Engineer http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jihad_but_what_about_other_verses_in_the_quran
Jihad: Concept, history and Contemporary Application, Sheikh Ali Gomaa http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jihad-concept-history-and-contemporary-application/0019994
Jihad, Empire and the Ethics of War and Peace, S Parvez Manzoor http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jihad_empire_and_the_ethics_of_war_and_peace
Jihad Incorporated: An Assessment, Dr. Robert D. Crane http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jihad_incorporated_an_assessment
Jihad - Islam’s Struggle For Truth, Mansur al-Mujahid (Vincent Cornell) http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jihad_islams_struggle_for_truth
Jihad: It’s True Meaning and Purpose, Dr. Muzammil H. Siddiqi http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jihad_its_true_meaning_and_purpose
Jihad of Islamophobes, Hussein Rashid http://www.religiondispatches.org/dispatches/husseinrashid/6443/jihad_of_islamophobes/
Jihad Renogiated, Yusuf al Qaradawi http://www.islamonline.net/english/Contemporary/2003/10/Article02.shtml
Jihadism is Kufr, not Islam, Sultan Shaheen http://www.islamfortoday.com/shaheen01.htm
Just War and Jihad, Bilal A. Malik, http://www.amherst.edu/~bamalik/docs/just-war-and-jihad-frame.html
Language and war in the Middle East, Ali Alarabi http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/language_and_war_in_the_middle_east/
Maslow and the Fourth Jihad, Dr. Robert D. Crane http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/maslow_and_the_fourth_jihad
Memo to Mr. Bin Laden: Go to Hell!, Muqtedar Khan, http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2003march_comments.php?id=293_0_18_0_C
Mindless Martyrs, Shahed Amanullah http://www.world-crisis.com/more/46_0_1_0_M4/
The Muslim Community: Where We Stand 1994, Hamza Yusuf http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the_muslim_community_where_we_stand_1994/
Muslim Reactions to September 11th, Sheila Musaji, http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2002sept_comments.php?id=39_0_14_30_C
Muslim scholars reject bin Laden’s idea of Jihad http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/39887_islam22.shtml
Muslim Terrorists Embrace a Very Secular Heresy, Abdal Hakim Murad http://argument.independent.co.uk/commentators/story.jsp?story=516991
Muslim Victims of September 11th Attack http://islam.about.com/blvictims.htm
Muslim Violence, Christian Non-Violence: People in Glass Houses Should Not Throw Words, Sheila Musaji http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/muslim_violence_christian_non_violence_people_in_glass_houses_should_not_th/
Muslim Voices Against Extremism and Terrorism list of article collections and resources on this and other topics including responses to Islamophobic claims.
- Part I & II Fatwas & Statements by Muslim Scholars & Organizations against extremism and terrorism
- Part III Statements & Articles by Individuals
- Part IV A few Quotes A-K, and L-Z
- Part V Muslim Voices Promoting Islamic Non Violent Solutions
- Part VI Qur’an & Hadith Against Extremism and Terrorism
- Part VII Selective Hearing of Muslim Voices Against Extremism and Terrorism
- Part VIII Religious terrorism is an oxymoron, Sheila Musaji
- Part IX Throwing Stones at the Qur’an From a Biblical Glass House, Sheila Musaji
- Part X Claim that all terrorists are Muslims ignores history
- Part XI A Spiritual Jihad Against Terrorism (5 parts), Sheila Musaji
Part XII Muslim Scholars Appeal to Christian Scholars for Dialogue and Peace - “A Common Word”, Sheila Musaji
Part XIII Muslim Violence, Christian Non-Violence: People in Glass Houses Should Not Throw Words, Sheila Musaji
Muslim World Condemns Attacks on U.S., http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2002sept_comments.php?id=127_0_14_30_C
Muslims Must Reclaim Islam From Hate Filled Zealots http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/opinion/85431_mona911.shtml
My Fatwa on the Fanatics, Ziauddin Sarwar, http://observer.guardian.co.uk/print/0,3858,4262753-108959,00.html
New Frontiers in Conflict Management: A Grand Strategy to Wage Jihad Against Terrorist Muslim, Dr. Robert D. Crane http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/new_frontiers_in_conflict_management_a_grand_strategy_to_wage_jihad_against
Peace and Justice in Islam, Imam Zaid Shakir http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/peace_and_justice_in_islam/
Qur’an 2:216 Commentary http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/quran_2216_commentary
Recapturing Islam from the Terrorists, Abdal-Haikim Murad, http://www.islamfortoday.com/murad01.htm
Religious Authority, Extremism, and the Amman Message, H.A. Hellyer http://www.altmuslim.com/a/a/a/2733/
Reply to Robert Spencer on his translation of jihad as holy war, Yusuf Smith http://www.blogistan.co.uk/blog/mt.php/2006/06/24/spencer_the_ndu_scholars_the_securocrat_and_his_books
Rescuing jihad from the terrorists, Salman Ahmad http://onfaith.washingtonpost.com/onfaith/panelists/salman_ahmad/2010/01/rescuing_jihad_from_the_terrorists.html
Russia’s 9/11 in Chechnya: Waging Jihad against Muslims who Hijack Islam, Dr. Robert D. Crane http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/russias_9_11_in_chechnya_waging_jihad_against_muslims_who_hijack_islam
Spiritual and Intellectual Jihad: A Best-Case Scenario for the Holy Land, Dr. Robert D. Crane http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/spiritual_and_intellectual_jihad_a_best_case_scenario_for_the_holy_land
Spiritual significance of jihad, Syed Hossein Nasr http://www.al-islam.org/al-serat/jihad-nasr.htm
Striving for Veritas at Harvard (Jihad Speech), Jim Guirard http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/striving_for_veritas_at_harvard
Struggle Against Terrorism, Mazin Qumsiyeh http://www.cactus48.com/struggle.html
Terrorism, Jihad, and the Struggle for New Understandings, Dr. Antony T. Sullivan http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/terrorism_terrorism_jihad_and_the_struggle_for_new_understandings
Terrorism Has No Place in Islam, Zaki Badawi http://www.arabnews.com/?page=5ǧion=0&article=9314&d=28&m=9&y=2001
Terrorism is at Odds With Isamic Tradition, Khaled Abou El Fadl, http://www.muslim-lawyers.net/news/index.php3?aktion=show&number=78
Terrorists Are Mass Murderers, Not Martyrs http://www.crescentlife.com/heal%20the%20world/terrorists_are_mass_murderers_not_martyrs.htm
Thank God Someone Is Listening to Us - Terrorism Is Not Jihad, Sheila Musaji http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/thank_god_someone_is_listening_to_us_terrorism_is_not_jihad
Towards A Definition of Terrorism, Ayatollah M. Ali Taskhiri http://al-islam.org/al-tawhid/definition-terrorism.htm
Turning Murderers Into Martyrs, Dr. Farish Noor, http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2003sept_comments.php?id=13_0_22_30_C
Twin Towers Viewed From a Western Minaret, Michael Wolfe, http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2002sept_comments.php?id=113_0_14_30_C
UK Muslims Urged to Fight Terrorism http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/3585671.stm
Winning the War of Ideas, Dr. Hesham Hassaballa http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/winning_the_war_of_ideas/
When In Doubt, Call It ‘Jihad’, Svend White http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/when_in_doubt_call_it_jihad
Who Are You Calling a Jihadist?, Sumbul Ali-Karamali http://www.huffingtonpost.com/sumbul-alikaramali/who-are-you-calling-a-jihadist-_b_2303361.html
You Say Jihadi, I Say Extremist, Zahed Amanullah http://www.altmuslim.com/a/a/b/2709/