What changed in the 20th/21st centuries in Muslim countries? - updated 7/6/14

What changed in the 20th/21st centuries in Muslim countries?

by Sheila Musaji

The Qur’an is very clear:

“For had it not been for Allah’s repelling some men by means of others, cloisters and churches and oratories and mosques, wherein the name of God is oft mentioned, would assuredly have been pulled down.” (22:40)

“Those who believe (in the Quran), and those who follow the Jewish (scriptures), and the Christians…and (all) who believe in God and the last day and work righteousness, shall have their reward with their Lord; on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.” (2:62) 

To each [religious community] we have given a direction which it follows, so compete [all together] in [the performance of] good deeds. Whosoever you may be, God shall certainly gather you all [for Divine Judgment]. God certainly has power over all things. (2:148)

O You who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to God, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be against rich or poor, for God can best protect both. Follow not the cravings of your hearts, lest you swerve, and if you distort justice or decline to do justice, verily God is well acquainted with all that you do. (4:135)

Unto every one of you have We appointed a different law and way of life. And if God had so willed, He could surely have made you all one single community: but He willed it otherwise in order to test you by means of what He has revealed to you. Compete then with one another in doing good works! Unto God you all must return and then He will make you truly understand all that on which you were wont to differ.  Qur’an 5:44-48

“And it they incline to peace, incline thou also to it, and trust in Allah. Lo! He is the Hearer, the Knower” (8:61)

The Hadith are very clear:

Whosoever sees an evil, then let him change it with his hand. If he is not able, then with his tongue. And if he is not able to do that, then with his heart and that is the weakest of belief. [Muslim, no. 49]

When the people see an evil and they do not try to change it, then Allaah will cover them all with humiliation from Himself. [Abu Dawood, no. 4338

By He in Whose Hand is my soul! You will enjoin righteousness and forbid evil, or Allaah will send a punishment on you from Him. Then, you will supplicate to Him, but He will not accept your supplication. (Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi)

The Prophet Muhammad’s Charter to the Monks of St. Catherine’s Monastery in the Sinai is very clear:

This is a message from Muhammad ibn Abdullah, as a covenant to those who adopt Christianity, near and far, we are with them.

Verily I, the servants, the helpers, and my followers defend them, because Christians are my citizens; and by Allah! I hold out against anything that displeases them.

No compulsion is to be on them.

Neither are their judges to be removed from their jobs nor their monks from their monasteries.

No one is to destroy a house of their religion, to damage it, or to carry anything from it to the Muslims’ houses.

Should anyone take any of these, he would spoil God’s covenant and disobey His Prophet. Verily, they are my allies and have my secure charter against all that they hate.

No one is to force them to travel or to oblige them to fight.

The Muslims are to fight for them.

If a female Christian is married to a Muslim, it is not to take place without her approval. She is not to be prevented from visiting her church to pray.

Their churches are to be respected. They are neither to be prevented from repairing them nor the sacredness of their covenants.

No one of the nation (Muslims) is to disobey the covenant till the Last Day (end of the world).

Our scholars have been very clear: 

For example in the 2004 Amman Statement:

... The Amman Message started as a detailed statement released the eve of the 27th of Ramadan 1425 AH / 9th November 2004 CE by H.M. King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein in Amman, Jordan. It sought to declare what Islam is and what it is not, and what actions represent it and what actions do not. Its goal was to clarify to the modern world the true nature of Islam and the nature of true Islam.

In order to give this statement more religious authority, H.M. King Abdullah II then sent the following three questions to 24 of the most senior religious scholars from all around the world representing all the branches and schools of Islam: (1) Who is a Muslim? (2) Is it permissible to declare someone an apostate (takfir)? (3) Who has the right to undertake issuing fatwas (legal rulings)?

Based on the fatwas provided by these great scholars (who included the Shaykh Al-Azhar; Ayatollah Sistani and Sheikh Qaradawi), in July 2005 CE, H.M. King Abdullah II convened an international Islamic conference of 200 of the world’s leading Islamic scholars ‘Ulama) from 50 countries. In Amman, the scholars unanimously issued a ruling on three fundamental issues (which became known as the ‘Three Points of the Amman Message’):

They specifically recognized the validity of all 8 Mathhabs (legal schools) of Sunni, Shi’a and Ibadhi Islam; of traditional Islamic Theology (Ash’arism); of Islamic Mysticism (Sufism), and of true Salafi thought, and came to a precise definition of who is a Muslim.  Based upon this definition they forbade takfir (declarations of apostasy) between Muslims.

Based upon the Mathahib they set forth the subjective and objective preconditions for the issuing of fatwas, thereby exposing ignorant and illegitimate edicts in the name of Islam.
These Three Points were then unanimously adopted by the Islamic World’s political and temporal leaderships at the Organization of the Islamic Conference summit at Mecca in December 2005. And over a period of one year from July 2005 to July 2006, the Three Points were also unanimously adopted by six other international Islamic scholarly assemblies, culminating with the International Islamic Fiqh Academy of Jeddah, in July 2006. In total, over 500 leading Muslim scholars worldwide unanimously endorsed the Amman Message and its Three Points. ...

See the articles: Protecting Religious Minorities & Houses of Worship a Duty for MuslimsCollection of Qur’an & Hadith Against Extremism, Sunni & Shiah Unity Resources, Muslim Voices Against Extremism and Terrorism for detailed information and large collections of articles and resources on this topic.

It is clear that extremism, terrorism, fanaticism, and intolerance towards minorities have no place in Islam.  If that is so, then what has changed?

What changed between the 6th century and the 20th/21st centuries?

In Saudi Arabia, Muslim historic sites, graveyards, mosques, etc. stood for centuries (some from the earliest days of Islam in the 6th century) and were protected by the Ottomans and previous generations.  Under the Saudi’s these sites are being destroyed.  The Saudi’s began destroying historical sites as soon as they came to power in 1806, but were stopped by the Ottomans who even attempted to restore some of the sites.  The Saudi’s did not get an opportunity to continue with their destruction until after the fall of the Ottoman Empire in the early 20th century.

The destruction of Islamic cultural heritage has gone far beyond Saudi Arabia, and beyond destruction of buildings to murder of human beings.

The Buddhas of Bamiyan stood in the Bamyan valley of Afghanistan since the 5th century AD.  Islam came to this area between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. There was some damage done to the statues over the centuries, blamed on various individual kings & emperors.  But the statues stood for 1,000 years in a predominantly Muslim country.  The Taliban commander responsible for destroying the statues in 2001 was prevented from doing so for some years by local authorities, and even by Mullah Mohammed Omar.  The Guardian reported “But the Taliban then decided to take a more pragmatic view of Afghanistan’s pre-Islamic past. In July 1999 Mullah Omar issued a decree that said the Bamiyan buddhas should be preserved. There were, he pointed out, no Buddhists left in Afghanistan to worship them. But he added: “The government considers the Bamiyan statues as an example of a potential major source of income for Afghanistan from international visitors. The Taliban states that Bamiyan shall not be destroyed but protected.” 

The Taliban destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan which was condemned by most Muslims at the time it happened.  This passage from an American Muslim condemnation of this act expresses the shock that such a thing could have happened:

The statues in Afghanistan are its historic treasures. These statues have existed in Afghanistan long before Afghans became Muslims. No Afghan Muslim government in the past tried to destroy them.  They represent the past history of Afghanistan and its transformation into a Muslim community that recognized monotheism. Past generations and governments of Afghanistan did not destroy these images and yet Islam flourished in Afghanistan.  In many other countries where Muslims are a majority, and have ruled those lands for centuries, they did not destroy the religious symbols of other people. Such images and symbols of the past still exist in almost all Muslim countries.

In Libya, the graves of scholars and Sufi saints have stood since the 15th century.  In 2012 extremists began destroying these graves.  In Timbuktu, Mali, hundreds of thousands of manuscripts have been lovingly maintained in its libraries since the 14th century.  In the 20th century hardline extremists attempted to destroy many of these manuscripts.  They set fire to some libraries, and also smashed graves and shrines.  In Tunisia, extremists have attacked almost 40 Sufi shrines in the past few years.  In Somalia, Iraq, and Pakistan, extremists are attacking Sufi shrines regularly.  In Bosnia, Saudi Arabia has offered to help restore mosques and historical sites damaged during the war.  Instead, under the pretense of helping restore them,  they have been destroyed and rebuilt.  Old Ottoman era cemeteries and Sufi shrines have been razed. 

In Egypt, Malaysia, Kenya, extremists are targeting Sufi shrines regularly. Extremists are attacking minority communities, including Shia, Ahmadi, Christians, Sikhs, Sufis, etc.  Even in countries where communities have lived together in relative peace for centuries, there is now a lack of tolerance, and even violence towards minorities.  In Pakistan, whose “Quaidi Azam” or great leader and founding father, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, was a Shia, the Shia are now undergoing intense persecution.

And, now we have the ISIS “Caliphate” in Iraq, Boko Haram and Al Shabab in Africa, and other al Qaeda offshoots in Syria and other Middle East countries.

What changed in the 20th/21st centuries?

Something new and destructive became a force within many Muslim communities.  Certainly, colonialism and the many destructive legacies of colonialism have had a negative impact.  The formation of the State of Israel by decree of former colonial powers and without taking into consideration the rights of the existing local community had a profound effect on not only the Middle East, but on the world.  The collapse of the Ottoman Empire also had a negative impact. 

All of these are important - but one negative force is rarely mentioned.  That is the rise of Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia, followed by the discovery of vast oil resources making the Saudi’s extremely wealthy.  This allowed them to use those vast resources to spread their particular interpretation of Islam around the world.  The destructive impulse has spread around the world wherever Wahhabi teachings have gone. 

Saudi Arabia funded madrassas that produced the Taliban and many other extremist groups.  They spread their ideology through sending Imams around the globe. They provided their own “revised” translations of the Qur’an, as well as “new” translations that provide only an extreme interpretation in line with their interpretation.  We saw this right in the U.S. with the “revised” Yusuf Ali, and the Hilali-Khan translations that were given away free by the case to mosques across the country.  They have funded all of this with petro-dollars.  And, although they are anti-traditional Islam, and anti-West, because of their oil, they have been supported by the West.

After a number of attacks on Shia’s, an MPAC statement against the violence pointed to one Muslim source of the sectarianism: “MPAC believes that a climate of intolerance in the Muslim world against Shiia’s has been fermented in part by poisonous anti-Shia teachings that emanate primarily from a strict Wahabi ideology.”  (See a series of MPAC statements against Sunni8/Shi’a violence here

As Dr. Khaled Abou El Fadl noted:

... Militant puritan groups, however, are both introverted and extroverted - they attempt to assert power against both Muslims and non-Muslims. As populist movements, they are a reaction to the disempowerment most Muslims have suffered in the modern age at the hands of harshly despotic governments and interventionist foreign powers.

In many ways, these militant groups compensate for extreme feelings of disempowerment by extreme and vulgar claims to power. Fuelled by the supremacist and puritan creed of Salafabism, these groups’ symbolic acts of power become uncompromisingly fanatical and violent.

It would be inaccurate to contend that the militant supremacist groups fill the vacuum of authority in contemporary Islam. Militant groups such as al-Qa’ida or the Taliban, despite their ability to commit highly visible acts of violence, are a sociological and intellectual marginality in Islam.

However, these groups are in fact extreme manifestations of more prevalent intellectual and theological currents in modern Islam. In my view, they are extreme manifestations of the rather widespread theological orientation of Salafabism. While it is true that Bin Laden was the quintessential example of a Muslim that was created, shaped and motivated by postcolonial experience, he is representative of underlying currents in contemporary Islam.

Much of what constitutes Islam today was shaped as a defensive reaction to the post-colonial experience, either as the product of uncritical cheerleading on behalf of what was presumed to be the Islamic tradition, or an obstinate rejectionism against what was presumed to be the Western tradition.

As such, the likes of Bin Laden are the children of a profound dissonance and dysfunctionalism experienced in both the Islamic heritage and in modernity. In my view, Bin Laden, along with the whole of the Salafabist movement, was an orphan of modernity, but their claim to an authentic lineage in the Islamic Civilization is tenuous at best. ...

It is past time for Muslims around the world to speak out against this destruction of our heritage, and this attack on traditional Islam from within.  It is not only buildings that are being destroyed.  First they destroyed buildings, and banned books, now they are killing human beings.  There are too many in our communities who have for too long promoted the view that we shouldn’t speak out against our own, especially in a time when there is such a strong element of Islamophobia in the West.  I believe that they are wrong, and that as the Qur’an says so clearly:

O You who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to God, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be against rich or poor, for God can best protect both. Follow not the cravings of your hearts, lest you swerve, and if you distort justice or decline to do justice, verily God is well acquainted with all that you do. (4:135)



Sheila Musaji is the founding editor of The American Muslim (TAM), published since 1989.  Sheila received the Council on American-Islamic Relations 2007 Islamic Community Service Award for Journalism,  and the Loonwatch Anti-Loons of 2011: Profiles in Courage Award for her work in fighting Islamophobia.  Sheila was selected for inclusion in the 2012 edition of The Muslim 500: The World’s 500 Most Influential Muslims published since 2009 by the Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre in Amman, Jordan.    Biography  You can follow her on twitter @sheilamusaji ( https://twitter.com/SheilaMusaji )


A Jewish Voice Left Silent: Trying to Articulate “The Levantine Option”, David Shasha http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/a_jewish_voice_left_silent_trying_to_articulate_the_levantine_option

After Jews and Arabs: Finding Our Common Humanity under the Rubble of Violence, David Shasha http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/after_jews_and_arabs_finding_our_common_humanity_under_the_rubble_of_violen

American Muslims Issue Statement Against Taliban Destruction of Buddhist Statues http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/american-muslims-issue-statement-against-taliban-destruction-of-buddhist-st

The AMMAN STATEMENT http://www.ammanmessage.com/ 

Breaking the power monopoly in Saudi Arabia http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/breaking_the_power_monopoly_in_saudi_arabia

Contested Histories and Disembodied Voices: How to Speak of the Arab Jew, David Shasha http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/contested_histories_and_disembodied_voices_how_to_speak_of_the_arab_jew1

Creating Common Platforms Between Muslim and Western Societies to Tackle Extremist Discourse, S. Abdallah Schleifer http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/creating_common_platforms_between_muslim_and_western_societies_to_tack

Destroyed Sufi Shrine In Kashmir Revered By Both Muslims And Hindus http://www.ibtimes.com/destroyed-sufi-shrine-kashmir-revered-both-muslims-and-hindus-704237

Saudi Destruction of Muslim Historical Sites, Sheila Musaji (with TAM article collection) http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/saudi_destruction_of_muslim_historical_sites1
Big Bin – the Royal Clock Tower of Mecca, Aziz Poonawalla 5/11
Builders erase Mecca’s history  7/05
Bulldozing Islam 10/2006
Destruction of early Islamic heritage sites, Wikipedia entry
Crimes Against Civilization in the Hejaz, Faisal Husain http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/7155/crimes-against-civilization-in-the-hejaz
The Destruction of Holy Sites in Mecca & Medina – Destroying Islamic Heritage  2/10
The destruction of Mecca: Saudi hardliners are wiping out their own heritage, By Daniel Howden 8/2005
Developers and Purists Erase Mecca’s History, Laith Abou Ragheb 7/06
Destruction of Islamic Architectural Heritage in Saudi Arabia: A Wake-up Call, Saeed Shehabi   2/2008
Destruction of Historic Meccan Sites Should be Avoided, By Mirza A. Beg
The Hajj exhibition is in stark contrast to Saudi Arabia’s cultural vandalism, Shehnaz Kermali
It is time (and past time) to Occupy Mecca—to save Mecca, Omid Safi http://archives.religionnews.com/blogs/omid-safi/it-is-time-and-past-time-to-occupy-mecca-to-save-mecca
Luxury Architecture in Mecca: Has Hajj Lost Its Egalitarian Spirit?  1/11
Medina: Saudis take a bulldozer to Islam’s history http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/medina-saudis-take-a-bulldozer-to-islams-history-8228795.html
Mecca Conference Criticized for Hypocrisy on Holy Site Destruction, Sherrie Gossett
Mecca for the rich: Islam’s holiest site ‘turning into Vegas’ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/mecca-for-the-rich-islams-holiest-site-turning-into-vegas-2360114.html
Mecca goes upmarket  12/2010
New Clock Tower in Mecca Challenges Greenwich Mean Time  8/2010
New Look for Mecca: Gargantuan and Gaudy  12/2010
New Projects Bury Makkah Heritage 9/11
photo of how Grand Mosque is being overshadowed by construction 4/06
Photographs of Masjid al Haram in 1880, unknown year, 1910, 1954, 2000, 2004.
Photograph of Jannat al Mualla at Mecca before and after demolition, inside the Jannat.
Photographs of Jannat ul Baqi before and after it was razed
Photographs of Medina in 1907, old photo year unknown.
photos of super tall development projects in Mecca
Photos of Abraj al Bait construction project near Kaabah 2/2006
Preservation of historical sites in Saudi Arabia sparks heated debate  1/10
Plans to revamp Islam’s holiest city are worrying Muslims around the world  12/08
Protecting Historical Sites in Saudi Arabia, Irfan Ahmed 2/2006
Public Toilets Built Over House of Sayyida Khadija by Saudi’s 2/2006
Proposed al Shamiya project in Mecca - Skyscraper City
The Price of Progress: Transforming Islam’s Holiest Site, Hassan Fattah 3/2007
Sacred Land Film Project
Saudis Accused of Razing Islamic Sites  3/2011
Saudi Clerics Want to Restrict Women Praying at Kaaba 8/2006
Saudi Arabia Seeks Tourists  5/06
The Saudis’ relentless drive to destroy the historic sites of Islam, Zafar Bangash 7/2008
Save the Hijaz Petition
Shame of the House of Saud: Shadows Over Mecca, Daniel Howden 3/2007
Transformed Mecca  11/10
Under the vandals hammer, destruction of historic Saudi sites
VIDEO Vandalization of holy places  1/2011

Don’t Fear All Islamists, Fear Salafis, Robin Wright http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/must-read-dont-fear-all-islamists-fear-salafis

The emergence of supremacist puritanism in modern Islam, Dr. Khaled Abou El Fadl http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the-emergence-of-supremacist-puritanism-in-modern-islam

Extremists set fire to one of world’s great libraries in Timbuktu http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/world-news/mali-extremists-set-fire-to-one-1561032

FACT SHEET: Palestinian Christians in the Holy Land http://imeu.net/news/article0023369.shtml

Pamela Geller Is Wrong About “Islamic Jew Hatred Commanded by the Qur’an”, Sheila Musaji http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/pamela-geller-is-wrong-about-islamic-jew-hatred-commanded-by-the-quran

Going After the Dead, Sidi Nazim Baksh http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/going-after-the-dead

HISTORY OF THE CEMETERY OF JANNAT AL-BAQI http://www.al-islam.org/shrines/baqi.htm

History of The Christian Coptic Orthodox Church Of Egypt http://st-takla.org/Coptic-church-1.html

How American Jewry Missed the Sephardic Israeli Saga: The Perspective of an Arab-Jew , Dr David Rabeeya http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/how_american_jewry_missed_the_sephardic_israeli_saga_the_perspective_of_an_

How mainstream Muslims understand the term “jihad”, Sheila Musaji http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the-real-meaning-of-jihad

Ibn Taymiyyah and His Fatwa on Terrorism, Asghar Ali Engineer http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/ibn_taymiyyah_and_his_fatwa_on_terrorism

In Egypt, Copts, Muslims and a tale of two churches, Dr. H.A Hellyer http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/in_egypt_copts_muslims_and_a_tale_of_two_churches

In the Face of Extremism: the Azhar’s Stance, Sheikh Ali Gomaa, Grand Mufti of Egypt http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/in-the-face-of-extremism-the-azhars-stance

Inside Wahhabi Islam http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/1571144.stm

ISIS and the Taliban: Writing on the wall for Afghanistan, Eric Walberg http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/isis-and-the-taliban-writing-on-the-wall-for-afghanistan

ISIS: Khilafa Rising, Rev. Frank Julian Gelli http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/khilafa-rising

Islamic Spirituality: The Forgotten Revolution: the Poverty of Fanaticism, Abdal Hakim Murad http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/islamic_spirituality_the_forgotten_revolution

Islamists Make Sufi Shrines A Target In North Africa, Kiran Alvi http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2013/02/10/171508858/islamists-make-sufi-shrines-a-target-in-north-africa

ISNA Works with Authorities in N. Africa to Develop Protocols to Protect Religious Minorities http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/isna-works-with-authorities-in-n.-africa-to-develop-protocols-to-protect-re

Jews - article collection on Jewish/Muslim relations http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/pamela-geller-is-wrong-about-islamic-jew-hatred-commanded-by-the-quran

Jihad:  Articles discussing mainstream Muslim understanding of the term “Jihad” http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the-real-meaning-of-jihad

Libya: Attack of the body-snatching, shrine-bulldozing, mosque-destroying extremists, Omid Safi http://archives.religionnews.com/blogs/omid-safi/attack-of-the-body-snatching-shrine-bulldozing-mosque-destroying-extremists

Libya Officials Seem Helpless as Sufi Shrines Are Vandalized http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/29/world/africa/in-libya-extremists-vandalize-sufi-shrines-with-impunity.html

Libya Sufi shrines attacked ‘by Islamist hardliners’ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-19380083

Libyans rally against destruction of Sufi shrines by Salafists http://www.magharebia.com/cocoon/awi/xhtml1/en_GB/features/awi/features/2012/08/27/feature-01

The Loss of Meaning: The Destruction of Muslim Holy Sites, Sheikh Faraz Rabbani http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the-loss-of-meaning-the-destruction-of-muslim-holy-sites

The Lunatic Fringe Still Pushing Sunni-Shia Sectarianism, Sheila Musaji http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/sunni-shia

The Mardin Conference – Understanding Ibn Taymiyyah’s Fatwa, Sheila Musaji http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/mardin_conference

MAS Freedom Welcomes Saudi King’s Pardon of ‘Qatif Girl’ But Reiterates the Need for Change, Aishah Schwartz http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/mas_freedom_welcomes_saudi_kings_pardon_of_qatif_girl_but_reiterates_t

The Mecca Charter: Saudi Exploitation of Religion for Secular Ends?, Dr. Robert D. Crane http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the_mecca_charter_saudi_exploitation_of_religion_for_secular_ends

The menace of Wahhabism,  Shaykhu-l-Islam Ahmad Zayni Dahlan http://www.sunnah.org/aqida/fitnatulWahhabiyyah.htm

More than 70 Indian Muslim scholars denounce the Taliban destruction http://www.themodernreligion.com/jihad/afghan/support.html

Muslim-Christian Relations, The Good, the Bad http://www.soundvision.com/info/jesus/muslimchristianrelations.asp

Muslim Experts Expose Realities of Religious Minorities in Muslim-Majority Countries, MPAC http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/experts-expose-realities-of-religious-minorities-in-muslim-majority-countri

Muslim, Jews and Christians - Relations and Interactions, Dr Gordon Newby http://www.iis.ac.uk/view_article.asp?ContentID=106331

Muslims Denounce Extremism and Terrorism:
A Spiritual Jihad Against Terrorism (5 parts), Sheila Musaji
Muslim Scholars Appeal to Christian Scholars for Dialogue and Peace - “A Common Word”, Sheila Musaji
Muslim Violence, Christian Non-Violence:  People in Glass Houses Should Not Throw Words, Sheila Musaji  
Muslim Voices Against Extremism and Terrorism
list of article collections and resources
- Part I & II Fatwas & Statements by Muslim Scholars & Organizations against extremism and terrorism
- Part III Statements & Articles by Individuals
- Part IV A few Quotes A-K, and L-Z
- Part V Muslim Voices Promoting Islamic Non Violent Solutions 
- Part VI Qur’an & Hadith Against Extremism and Terrorism
- Part VII Selective Hearing of Muslim Voices Against Extremism and Terrorism 
- Part VIII Religious terrorism is an oxymoron, Sheila Musaji
- Part IX Throwing Stones at the Qur’an From a Biblical Glass House, Sheila Musaji
- Part X Claim that all terrorists are Muslims ignores history
- Part XI Hirabah - Jihad - Terrorism - Violence - Just War - Crusades article collection and resources from TAM and Loonwatch - updated 7/6/12

Not to be outdone by Robertson, Mohler claimed that Buddhism, Hinduism, and Marxism are “demonstration[s] of satanic power”  http://mediamatters.org/research/200603200013

Pat Robertson, the Taliban, and destruction of “idols”, Sheila Musaji http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/destroying-idols

Prophet Muhammad’s Charter to the Monks of St. Catherine’s Monastery http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/prophet_muhammads_charter_to_the_monks_of_st_catherines_monastery

The Prophet of Islam and the Monks of Christendom,, Reza Shah Kazemi http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the_prophet_of_islam_and_the_monks_of_christendom

Pakistani Taliban target Sufi shrines http://www.thenational.ae/news/world/south-asia/pakistani-taliban-target-sufi-shrines

Rediscovering the Arab Jewish Past, David Shasha http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/book_review_rediscovering_the_arab_jewish_past

Saudi Destruction of Muslim Historical Sites, Sheila Musaji (with collection of articles on this specific topic)  http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/saudi_destruction_of_muslim_historical_sites1

Saudi Wahhabi Aid Workers Bulldoze Balkan Monuments http://www.angelfire.com/ar/rawdah/03buldoz.htm

The Saudi-isation Of Pakistan, Parvez Hoodbhoy http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the_saudi_isation_of_pakistan

Salafi Burnout http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/salafi-burnout

Shi’s and shortage of sheep, Faruq Abdl Haq http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/shia_and_the_shortage_of_sheep_more_perspective_on_gang_rape_in_saudi_

So, what did the Muslims do for the Jews?, David J. Wasserstein http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/so-what-did-the-muslims-do-for-the-jews

Sufis and Salafis of the West: Discord and the Hope of Unity, Yahya Birt http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/sufis_and_salafis_of_the_west_discord_and_the_hope_of_unity

Sufism may be powerful antidote to Islamic extremism, Jane Lampman http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/1205/p13s02-lire.html

Sufism re-emerges in Somalia as al-Shabab’s control wanes http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-18467464

Sunni/Shi’a unity article collection http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/sunni-shia

Terrorism, Salafi Jihadism and the West, Tariq Ramadan http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/terrorism-salafi-jihadism-and-the-west

Terrorism, Jihad, and the Struggle for New Understandings, Dr. Antony T. Sullivan http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/terrorism_terrorism_jihad_and_the_struggle_for_new_understandings

Timbuktu library – a treasure house of centuries of Malian history, Peter Walker http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/jan/28/timbuktu-library-centuries-african-history 

Timbuktu’s Ancient Libraries: Saved by Locals, Endangered by a Government http://world.time.com/2013/02/04/timbuktus-ancient-libraries-saved-by-locals-endangered-by-a-government/

Tradition and truths in the Muslim world, H.A. Hellyer http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/tradition_and_truths_in_the_muslim_world

The truth about the expulsion of Jews from Arab Countries, Esther Meir-Glitzenstein http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/must-read-the-truth-about-the-expulsion-of-jews-from-arab-countries

Wahhabi Theology http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/loc/sa/wahhabi.htm

The Wahhabi Threat To Islam, Mona Eltahawy http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A17037-2004Jun4.html

WAHHABISM: UNDERSTANDING THE ROOTS AND ROLE MODELS OF ISLAMIC EXTREMISM, Zubair Qamar http://www.sunnah.org/articles/Wahhabiarticleedit.htm

Wahhabism in India, Yoginder Sikand http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/wahhabism_in_india

Where Did Al-Qaeda Come From?: Why No One Wins If Islam Loses The Blame Game, Dr. David Liepert http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/where-did-al-qaeda-come-from-why-no-one-wins-if-islam-loses-the-blame-game

Who or what is a Salafi? Is their approach valid?, Sheikh Nuh Ha Mim Keller http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/who-or-what-is-a-salafi-is-their-approach-valid

World reaction to destruction of Bamiyan Buddha’s http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/world/monitoring/media_reports/1202432.stm

Why the Taliban are destroying Buddhas,  W.L. Rathje http://www.usatoday.com/news/science/archaeology/2001-03-22-afghan-buddhas.htm 

Type Wahhabi, Shi’a, lunatic fringe, extremists, sectarianism, Saudi, condemn, Jews, Christians, Taliban, ISIS, al Qaeda, Boko Haram, Al Shabab, jihad, caliphate, etc. into TAM search engine to find numerous articles on these topics