Existing Reports, Polls, and Studies on Islam, Muslims & Radicalization - updated 2/17/13

Existing Reports, Polls, and Studies on Islam, Muslims & Radicalization

by Sheila Musaji

In the Congressional hearing -  “The Extent of Radicalization in the American Muslim Community and that Community’s Response.”  -  held by Rep. Peter King there were no hard facts brought forward.  What we heard were emotional personal stories, opinions, allegations, stereotypes, and innuendo.

Nothing that we heard in these hearings went beyond the long list of bigoted propaganda stating some “fact” that everyone “knows” which are all, quite simply, not facts at all.  You can find responses to hundreds of such claims here.  You can click on any of the links included in this list of commonly repeated claims, and you will find an article that explains why that claim is false.

Because Rep. King appears to be unaware of existing studies and reports on this subject, TAM has collected a few of these for him and for the other members of the Congressional Department of Homeland Security.  Perhaps a few hard facts might help to make any future hearings more productive and less wasteful of taxpayers money.  Rather than placing suspicion on an entire community, perhaps a little factual information might save everyone a lot of unnecessary trouble.

LIST OF RELEVANT REPORTS & STUDIES


The ACLU published BLOCKING FAITH, FREEZING CHARITY: CHILLING MUSLIM CHARITABLE GIVING IN THE “WAR ON TERRORISM FINANCING” 

ACLU published Nothing to Fear: Debunking the Mythical “Sharia Threat” to Our Judicial System 5/2011

The American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) hosted a briefing on Capitol Hill to publicize the positive relationship between Arab-American communities and law enforcement.

American Sociological Association Report The Fringe Effect: Civil Society Organizations & the Evolution of Media Discourse about Islam since 9/11 Christopher A Bail ** 2012

Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodies (ASARB),  “2010 U.S. Religious Census: Religious Congregations & Membership Study (RCMS)” (includes info. on states with highest, lowest Muslim populations) ** 2012

Bipartisan Policy Center Report, Countering Online Radicalization in America ** 2012

Brennan Center for Justice, New York University published RETHINKING RADICALIZATION by Faiza Patel.  Summary:

Radicalization is complex. Yet a thinly-sourced, reductionist view of how people become terrorists has gained unwarranted legitimacy in some counterterrorism circles. This view corresponds with—and seems to legitimize—“counter-radicalization” measures that rely heavily on non-threat-based intelligence collection, a tactic that may be ineffective or even counterproductive. Only by analyzing what we know about radicalization and the government’s response to it can we be sure that these reactions are grounded in fact rather than stereotypes and truly advance our efforts to combat terrorism.

The government’s lead agencies to combat radicalization recognize the complexity of the radicalization process. However, they have not expressly repudiated theories suggesting it is possible to detect radicalization long before people take concrete steps toward violence.

Domestic law enforcement agencies, including the FBI and state and local police departments, have stepped into the breach, developing simplistic theories, such as the “religious conveyer belt” theory, of how American Muslims become radicalized. These theories suggest, contrary to empirical social science studies, that the path to terrorism has a fixed trajectory and that each step of the process has specific, identifiable markers, according to the report.

This accepted understanding of how someone becomes a terrorist influences the selection of investigative techniques. For example, according to the report, the assumed link between religiosity and terrorism encourages intrusion into mosques, traditionally considered off-limits to the government absent a specific connection to suspected criminal or terrorist activity.

This emphasis on intelligence collection about radicalization, much of which involves First Amendment-protected speech and activities, has undermined a much-touted prong of the government’s strategy—the attempt to engage American Muslim communities in the fight against terrorism.

“Many American Muslims believe their communities are treated as inherently suspicious by the government,” states the report. “As a result, while American Muslim communities have been invaluable partners in the government’s counterterrorism efforts, some American Muslims are becoming more guarded in their relations with law enforcement agencies. The obvious tension between the government’s various responses to radicalization is increasingly noted, but remains unaddressed: Can a community simultaneously be treated as suspect and also be expected to function as a partner?”

The report has specific recommendations for the federal government to recalibrate its approach to radicalization, including:

•Repudiating the unfounded theory of radicalization that is popular with law enforcement agencies;
•Establishing a mechanism to evaluate the effectiveness of the plethora of anti-radicalization measures that have been undertaken;
•Constituting the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board (already mandated by Congress) to analyze the civil liberties impact of counter-radicalization policies, particularly on American Muslims’ First Amendment freedoms;
•Increasing the transparency of law enforcement policies in this area; and
•Reconfiguring its outreach activities to Muslim communities to ensure sustained outreach at the local level accompanied by a serious policy dialogue at the national level.

The Brookings Institute published REFORMULATING THE BATTLE OF IDEAS: UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF ISLAM IN COUNTERTERRORISM POLICY

The Brookings Institute published STRATEGIC COUNTERRORISM

The Brookings Institute published FEELING BETRAYED: THE ROOTS OF MUSLIM ANGER AT AMERICA

The Brookings Institute published Building Capacity and Developing Leadership among American Muslims and Their Organizations

The Brookings Institute published What It Means to be an American: Attitudes in an Increasingly Diverse America Ten Years after 9/11

Bureau of International Information Programs published MUSLIMS IN AMERICA: A STATISTICAL PORTRAIT 

CAIR (Council on American Islamic Relations) published WESTERN MUSLIM MINORITIES: INTEGRATION AND DISENFRANCHISEMENT

CAIR published THE STATUS OF MUSLIM CIVIL RIGHTS IN THE UNITED STATES 2009: Seeking Full Inclusion

CAIR published THE MOSQUE IN AMERICA: A NATIONAL PORTRAIT

CAIR and the University of California, Berkeley’s Center for Race and Gender (CRG) published Same Hate, New Target:  Islamophobia and its impact in the United States  6/23/11

CAIR released Securing Religious Liberty.  A Muslim community handbook for opposing legislation that restricts religious freedom and threatens the U.S. Constitution.  Countering anti-Sharia legislation. 2012

The Center for American Progress report UNDERSTANDING SHARIAH LAW:  Conservatives’ Skewed Interpretation Needs Debunking, by Wajahat Ali and Matthew Duss.

Center for American Progress report FEAR INC.: THE ROOTS OF THE ISLAMOPHOBIA NETWORK IN AMERICA.  The key researchers for this report were Wajahat Ali, Eli Clifton, Matthew Duss, Lee Fang, Scott Keyes, and Faiz Shakir.  The report itself is the result of a six month investigative project, and is 132 pages in length. Article about the report, with article collection here 8/26/11

Center for Human Rights and Global Justice (CHRGJ) at NYU published “Targeted and Entrapped: Manufacturing the “Homegrown Threat” in the U.S.  which critically examines three high-profile domestic terrorism prosecutions and raises serious questions about the role of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the New York City Police Department (NYPD) in constructing the specter of “homegrown” terrorism through the deployment of paid informants to encourage terrorist plots in Muslim communities.

The Center for National Policy’s Scott Bates, a Homeland Security expert points out the false connection between religion and terrorism: “The folks who are most knowledgeable of the religion are the least likely to get recruited. It’s those who have almost a voyeuristic attraction to it [the religion] that get drawn in.” This is also backed by a study performed by researchers at Duke University and the University of North Carolina, who found that mosques actually serve as a deterrent to terrorism. According to the study, many mosque leaders have put significant effort into countering extremism by building youth programs, sponsoring antiviolence forums and scrutinizing teachers and texts. [Scott Bates, 9/8/10. David Schanzer et al, 1/6/10] **  The same study also found that The American Muslim community has been the single largest source of tips that have brought terror suspects to the attention of authorities, the study found. (It also found that the number of American Muslims found or suspected to be part of terror operations dropped substantially in 2010.) **

Communique Partners published Western Perception of Islam and Muslims 2005

A coalition of organizations released The American Mosque 2011 by Ihsan Bagby which aims to obtain a more accurate count of the number of mosques and Muslims in the U.S., demographics of mosque attendees, and the attitudes of mosque leaders towards topics such as American Muslim participation in civil society, how they interpret the Quran and Sunnah, perceptions of discrimination, etc. 2012

A Congressional Research Service Report, AMERICAN JIHADIST TERRORISM: COMBATING A COMPLEX THREAT cites numerous examples of Muslim community activities and federal engagement and partnership activities with Muslim-American communities. Note that on pgs. 59 and 77 the report notes actions taken by CAIR that contradict King’s assertions about Muslim leadership.  This report sent to Congress with little fanfare on September 20, contends that soon after 9-11, American Muslims “recognized the need to define themselves as distinctly American communities who, like all Americans, desire to help prevent another terrorist attack” and explores how federal, state and local law enforcement organizations responded by tapping into American Muslims’ language skills, contacts, information and cultural insights.  The CRS is a branch of the Library of Congress.

Council of Religious Institutions of the Holy Land Report on Israeli & Palestinian Textbooks (Weakens Israeli Claim That Palestinian School Texts Teach Hate) ** 2013

The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) released a report saying that the U.S. Should Forge “New Partnership” With Turkey.  2012

The Counterterrorism Communications Center published “WORDS THAT WORK AND WORDS THAT DON’T: A GUIDE FOR COUNTERTERRORISM COMMUNICATION”

This report offers specific directives, such as: don’t use terms such as “jihadist” or “holy warrior” because it legitimizes bin Laden’s followers, but also don’t use terms such as “Islamo-fascism,” which offends everyone else by associating Islam with fascism.  UPI reports that “Urging officials not to use the word Islam in conjunction with terrorism, the guide notes that, “Although the al-Qaida network exploits religious sentiments and tries to use religion to justify its actions, we should treat it as an illegitimate political organization, both terrorist and criminal.”  Instead of calling terror groups Muslim or Islamic, the guide suggests using words like totalitarian, terrorist or violent extremist—“widely understood terms that define our enemies appropriately and simultaneously deny them any level of legitimacy.”

Demos has released a report THE EDGE OF VIOLENCE: TACKLING HOME GROWN TERRORISMThe path into terrorism in the name of Islam is often described as a process of radicalisation. But to be radical is not necessarily to be violent. Violent radicals are clearly enemies of liberal democracies, but non-violent radicals might sometimes be powerful allies. This pamphlet is a summary of two years of research examining the difference between violent and non-violent radicals in Europe and Canada. It represents a step towards a more nuanced understanding of the behaviour of radicalised individuals, the appeal of the al-Qaeda narrative, and the role of governments and communities in responding.  ...  The report which defines ‘radical’ as the ‘rejection of the status quo’ lays bare the myth that radicalisation is a linear path to violence and terrorism. As the report argues; ‘differentiating between types of radicalisation is extremely important because targeting the wrong people can breed resentment and alienation and erode the freedoms Western governments want to preserve’.  Using a combination of literature reviews and interviews across 5 countries (UK, Canada, Denmark, France and the Netherlands), the report seeks to cast light on how and why some types of radicalisation develop into violence and others do not; how the different types relate to each other and what implications this has for social and security policy.  The report comes up with the following 3 recommendations stakeholders will find useful in addressing the challenges in question: encouraging positive activism, demystifying and de-glamourising Al-Qaeda as a structure and an ideology and encouraging a greater role for the involvement of non-governmental actors.

The Dept. of Homeland Security published RIGHTWING EXTREMISM: CURRENT ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CLIMATE FUELING RESURGENCE IN RADICALIZATION AND RECRUITMENT in 2009.  Due to a veritable firestorm of protests from rightwing media personalities and GOP’s in Congress, the report was withdrawn.  It is still obtainable through the link.

The Dept. of Homeland Security published TERMINOLOGY TO DEFINE THE TERRORISTS: RECOMMENDATIONS FROM AMERICAN MUSLIMS

This report was considered by the State Department in preparing their report on “Words that Work”.  From the conclusion of this report:  “Words matter. The terminology the USG uses should convey the magnitude of the threat we face, but also avoid inflating the religious bases and glamorous appeal of the extremists’ ideology. Instead, USG terminology should depict the terrorists as the dangerous cult leaders they are. They have no honor, they have no dignity, and they offer no answers. While acknowledging that they have the capacity to destroy, we should constantly emphasize that they cannot build societies, and do not provide solutions to the problems people across the globe face.”

Salam al-Marayati of MPAC commented on this topic “Dropping religious labels] denies Al-Qaeda and its affiliates the religious legitimacy they severely lack and so desperately seek. For years, Muslim public opinion has decisively turned against Bin Ladin, Al-Qaeda and other terrorist groups because of the immoral, unethical and gruesome tactics they employ and because the vast majority of their victims have been other Muslims.  ...  one of our strategic goals should be to empower the authentic and mainstream Muslim voices that are working on a daily basis to counter the cult of death, which groups such as Al-Qaeda call to. By removing religious labels from describing the terrorists, we empower and embolden those mainstream voices and deny the terrorists from making a religious claim. This is precisely why in 2008 a Department of Homeland Security (DHS) internal memo circulated amongst government agencies directed government officials and diplomatic staff to consider the implications of using “Islamic” language when discussing terrorism-related issues.”

 
The Dept. of Homeland Security published USE OF CYBER ATTACKS OVER THE COMING DECADE

Duke Univ. Islamic Studies Center and ISPU report Community Engagement is Key in Countering Violent Extremism in the U.S. ** 2012

EUROPOL published EU TERRORISM SITUATION AND TREND REPORT and 2010 report According to figures listed in this report, Dan Gardner ]notesAs for who’s responsible, forget Islamists. The overwhelming majority of the attacks- 237 of 294 - were carried out by separatist groups, such as the Basque ETA. A further 40 terrorists schemes were pinned on leftist and/or anarchist terrorists. Rightists were responsible for four attacks. Single-issue groups were behind two attacks, while responsibility for a further 10 was not clear.    Islamists? They were behind a grand total of one attack. Yes, one. Out of 294 attacks. In a population of half a billion people. To put that in perspective, the same number of attacks was committed by the Comité d’Action Viticole, a French group that wants to stop the importation of foreign wine.  Updated Europol data http://www.loonwatch.com/2011/11/updated-europol-data-less-than-1-of-terrorist-attacks-by-muslims/

Foreign Policy Research Institute FPRI, Radicalization in the U.S. Beyond al Qaeda
Treating the disease of the disconnection Clint Watts ** 2012

The George Washington University Homeland Security Policy Institute and The University of Virginia Critical Incident Analysis Group has published NETworked Radicalization: A Counter-Strategy The American Muslim (TAM) along with a number of other Muslim efforts was mentioned positively in this study.

Harvard University published Evangelism in the Profession of Arms: An Evaluation of Evangelical Christian Proselytizing in the Professional Journal of the United States Air Force

The Homeland Security Institute has prepared for the U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security The Internet as a terrorist tool for recruitment and radicalization of youth

The Hope Not Hate campaign released a Counter Jihad Report which profiles over 100 individuals who are central to the international anti-Muslim network.

Institute of Race Relations (Great Britain) Pedlars of Hate: the violent impact of the European far Right ** 2012

The Institute for Social Policy and Understanding published A Portion of the People: Islam in a ‘Christian’ America

The Institute for Social Policy and Understanding published Islamo-Christian Civilization Richard Bulliett ** 2012

The Institute for Social Policy and Understanding published The United States & Political Islamism: From Demobilization to Deradicalization?

The Institute for Social Policy and Understanding produced Tackling Muslim Radicalization: Lessons from Scotland

The Institute for Social Policy and Understanding published The Muslim Friday Khutba (in America): Veiled and Unveiled Themes 

The Institute for Social Policy and Understanding published Islamic Schools of the United States: Data-based Profiles

The Institute for Social Policy and Understanding produced Not In Our Neighborhood: Managing Opposition to Mosque Construction

The Institute for Social Policy and Understanding published Global Battleground or School Playground: The Bullying of America’s Muslim Children

The Institute for Social Policy and Understanding published Malleable Stereotypes: How Media is Improving the Image of American Muslims

The Institute for Social Policy and Understanding published The US Patriot Act: Impact on the Arab and Muslim American Community

The Institute for Social Policy and Understanding (ISPU) released a report based on interviews with more than 200 North American Muslims over four years concludes that a recent spate of state laws banning “sharia law” from the court system may be an overreaction to a non-existent threat.  The report Shari’a Law: Coming to a Courthouse Near You?: What Shari’a Really Means to American Muslims notes that ” Based on the study, for most American Muslims shari’a represents a private system of morality and identity, primarily focused on marriage and divorce rituals. None of the American Muslims interviewed for this study expected American courts to enforce shari’a. Just like other Americans, they will access the courts for adjudication according to American family law if they cannot make a private agreement (relating to divorce) that meets their needs and values.”

Institute for Social Policy & Understanding (ISPU) report Engaging American Muslims: Political Trends and Attitudes by Farid Senzai 2012

The Institute for Social Policy and Understanding published Sharia and Diversity: Why Some Americans are Missing the Point Asifa Quraishi-Landes ** 2013

Institute for Strategic Dialogue Policy Briefing: FAR-RIGHT EXTREMISM: TRENDS AND METHODS FOR RESPONSE AND PREVENTION  2012

The International Centre for the Study of Radicalization has published Countering Online Radicalisation: A Strategy for Action

Int’l Journal of Intercultural Relations report Perceived islamophobia: Scale development and validation ** 2012

ISNA (The Islamic Society of North America) published STATEMENT AGAINST TERRORISM AND RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM

The FBI published DOMESTIC TERRORISM IN THE POST-9/11 ERA 

Journal of Religion & Society, Claremont Graduate Univ., Kripke Center,  Anti-Islamic Sentiment and Media Framing during the 9/11 Decade, Christopher Smith ** 2013

Leadership Group on U.S.-Muslim Engagement report, “Changing Course: A New Direction for U.S. Relations with the Muslim World” ** 2008

MAPOS The MUSLIM AMERICAN PUBLIC OPINION SURVEY by Matt A. Barreto, University of Washington and Karam Dana, Harvard University

Marquette University Prof.Risa A. Brooks’ Study on Muslim “Homegrown” Terrorism in the United States How Serious Is the Threathttp://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1162/ISEC_a_00055

Muslim Advocated published LOSING LIBERTY: THE STATE OF FREEDOM 10 YEARS AFTER THE PATRIOT ACT

MPAC (Muslim Public Affairs Council) published “A REVIEW OF U.S.  COUNTERTERRORISM POLICY: AMERICAN MUSLIM CRITIQUE & RECOMMENDATIONS.”

MPAC published its first policy memo as the Counterterrorism Chronicles in 1993, and produced its first policy paper on counterterrorism policy in 1999. In September 2003, MPAC published its second counterterrorism policy paper entitled “A REVIEW OF U.S.  COUNTERTERRORISM POLICY: AMERICAN MUSLIM CRITIQUE & RECOMMENDATIONS.” General Brent Scowcroft, former Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs to Presidents George H.W. Bush and Gerald Ford, said, “MPAC’s Counterterrorism Policy Paper is a serious and thoughtful document that should be valuable to all policy-makers. Counterterrorism analysis from an American Muslim perspective is critical to the decision-making process. I found the paper to be serious and in-depth, and the recommendations should be reviewed by the policy-making community.”

MPAC published “BUILDING BRIDGES TO STRENGTHEN AMERICA: BUILDING AN EFFECTIVE COUNTERTERRORISM ENTERPRISE BETWEEN MUSLIM AMERICANS AND LAW ENFORCEMENT.”

Against the background of more than a dozen domestic terrorism plots uncovered in 2009, this paper discusses the current analysis of the “domestic radicalization” and proposes a blueprint for effective community-law enforcement engagement and partnership.  This report focuses on several key components:

•Assessing current public opinion and policy discourse on violent extremism
•Understanding processes leading to “radicalization” and violent extremism
•Critiquing the effectiveness of current counterterrorism policies such as informants, NSA wiretapping, racial profiling, and national security letters
•Outlining a model for a community-law enforcement partnership based on community-oriented policing
•Addressing potential challenges to community-oriented policing

Building Bridges to Strengthen America seeks to provide a mainstream Muslim American contribution to the counterterrorism policy discourse. In particular, it seeks outline a “blueprint” for how Muslim American communities - from a Muslim American perspective - can be an asset to national security. At the same time, this report also provides practical recommendations for law enforcement to uphold civil liberties while maintaining their effectiveness.

MPAC has created campaigns to assist local Muslim communities in engaging with law enforcement and ensuring financial and ideological transparency at their mosques. One such program is our NATIONAL GRASSROOTS CAMPAIGN TO FIGHT TERRORISM, which was launched in 2004 and endorsed by the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) and the Department of Justice.  More recently, they released an eye opening policy paper entitled “BUILDING BRIDGES TO STRENGTHEN AMERICA: BUILDING AN EFFECTIVE COUNTERTERRORISM ENTERPRISE BETWEEN MUSLIM AMERICANS AND LAW ENFORCEMENT.” Against the background of more than a dozen domestic terrorism plots uncovered in 2009, this paper discusses the current analysis of the “domestic radicalization” and proposes a blueprint for effective community-law enforcement engagement and partnership.

MPAC held a Forum on Partnership of Muslim Americans and Law Enforcement on Capitol Hill - video here titled “Muslims, Law Enforcement and National Security,” which included Peter Bergen, CNN National Security Analyst and current Director of the National Security Studies Program at the New America Foundation; Roger Cressey, Former Director for Transnational Threats at the National Security Council (NSC) and professor at Georgetown University; Sheriff Lee Baca, Los Angeles County Sheriff, Founder Muslim American Homeland Security Congress (MAHSC); Michael Downing, Deputy Chief of the Counter-Terrorism and Special Operations Bureau of Los Angeles Police Department; and MPAC’s Alejandro J. Beutel, who wrote a policy paper on countering violent extremism.

MPAC published POST 9/11 TERRORISM DATABASE

This report examines the challenges posed by Muslim terrorists in two ways. The first is by examining the quantitative and qualitative nature of terrorism trials. Second, it looks at the number of actual and attempted attacks within the United States, including a comparative analysis of incidents involving Muslim and non-Muslim perpetrators.  The Database draws upon tracking done by the Congressional Research Service, Heritage Foundation, Southern Poverty Law Center, official government and court documents, and mainstream media reporting.  Summary of key findings HERE

MPAC published THE IMPACT OF 9/11 ON MUSLIM AMERICAN YOUNG PEOPLE Published in 2007, this special report attempts to do two things: first, frame the issues related to the radicalization of Muslim youth in the West in a way that is consistent with realities on the ground and emphasizes the distinction between the American and European experiences; and second, provide a series of recommendations to Muslim American institutions, government and the media in their efforts to engage young Muslims in a healthy partnership of respect and equality with the goal of enhancing their integration and reducing the possibility for radicalization.

MPAC published COUNTERPRODUCTIVE COUNTERTERRORISM: HOW ANTI-MUSLIM BIAS IS UNDERMINING AMERICA’s HOMELAND SECURITY  Several myths abound regarding the role of American Muslims in counterterrorism policy, the most prominent and problematic of which paints the American Muslim community as a threat to America’s national security. In fact, the American Muslim community is an asset to law enforcement in their shared goal to root out terrorism and extremism. The source of suspicion of American Muslims stems from false accusations of American Muslim organizations.

National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Response to Terrorism (START), University of Maryland,  Profiles of Perpetrators of Terrorism in the United States (PPT-US) ** 2012

National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) Hot Spots of Terrorism and Other Crimes in the United States, 1970 to 2008 ** 2012

The New America Foundation and Syracuse University’s Maxwell School published Homegrown Terrorism Cases, 2001-2011.  They have examined cases of homegrown jihadist and non-jihadist terrorism in the United States since the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks. The found that Islamist terrorism has been no more deadly in the United States than other forms of domestic terrorism since September 11.  They also note that

To be clear, the 114 cases of right-wing and left-wing terrorism we examined probably do not represent a complete survey of non-Islamist terrorist cases in the United States since September 11. While some of this case information is available from the FBI, as well as organizations that track right-wing radicalism such as the Southern Poverty Law Center, keeping track of these incidents is far more difficult than tracking incidents of Islamist terrorism.

That is because unlike Islamist terror cases, which are nearly all tried under anti-terrorism laws or statutes dealing with “material support” to terrorist groups, other domestic terrorism cases are often tried under an array of other statutes, from weapons and explosives violations, property destruction and arson to “seditious conspiracy” in the case of the anti-government Hutaree militia in Michigan.

Research on the subject is also hampered by the fact that many of these cases received only limited media attention, unlike the now 188 cases of Islamist terrorism that the New America Foundation and Syracuse’s Maxwell School have found in the United States since September 11.

  More here  9/2011

New York Civil Liberties Union (NYCLU) White Paper Religious Freedom Under Attack:  The Rise of Anti-Mosque Activities in New York State  8/2011

Penny Hill Press published a Congressional Research Service report Application of Religious Law in U.S. Courts: Selected Legal Issues

People for the American Way (PFAW) report The Right Wing Playbook on Anti-Muslim Extremism  7/2011

The PFAW report The Right Wing Playbook on Anti-Muslim Extremism discusses eight strategies employed by anti-Muslim activists to cast doubt on the validity of Islam as a religion and the integrity of American Muslims in order to justify prejudice and illegal discrimination: Framing American Muslims as dangerous to America; Twisting statistics and using fake research to “prove” the Muslim threat; Inventing the danger of “creeping Sharia”; Justifying taking away freedoms and liberties from Muslims in order to “defend liberty”; Denying the validity of Islam as a religion; Arguing that Muslims have no First Amendment rights under the Constitution; Linking anti-Muslim prejudice to anti-Obama rhetoric; Slandering progressives and non-Christians as unholy and anti-American.

Pew Forum Report, Controversies Over Mosques and Islamic Centers Across the U.S. ** 2011

PEW Forum report Rising Tide of Restrictions on Religion (worldwide) ** 2012

Political Research Associates (PRA) published MANUFACTURING THE MUSLIM MENACE: PRIVATE FIRMS, PUBLIC SERVANTS, AND THE THREAT TO RIGHTS AND SECURITY 

Political Research Associates (PRA) published Toxic to Democracy: Conspiracy Theories, Demonization, & Scapegoating by Chip Berlet

Political Research Associates (PRA)  published NEW DOMESTIC SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM: PLATFORM FOR PREJUDICE.  Suspicious Activity Reporting to go Nationwide,  New PRA Report Says: “Not So Fast,” Urges Congressional Hearings

POLLS, STATISTICS, AND SURVEYS RELATING TO ISLAM, MUSLIMS AND SECURITY.  There are many of these in this collection providing useful hard data.

A Rand Corporation Report, WOULD BE WARRIORS: INCIDENTS OF TERRORIST RADICALIZATION IN THE UNITED STATES SINCE SEPTEMBER 11, 2001. (2010) notes that Most of America’s homegrown terrorists are U.S. citizens. Information on national origin or ethnicity is available for 109 of the identified homegrown terrorists. The Arab and South Asian immigrant communities are statistically overrepresented in this small sample, but the number of recruits is still tiny. There are more than 3 million Muslims in the United States, and few more than 100 have joined jihad—about one out of every 30,000—suggesting an American Muslim population that remains hostile to jihadist ideology and its exhortations to violence. A mistrust of American Muslims by other Americans seems misplaced.  ...  While radicalization and recruitment to jihadist terrorism are cause for continuing concern, the current threat must be kept in perspective. The volume of domestic terrorist activity was much greater in the 1970s than it is today. That decade saw 60 to 70 terrorist incidents, most of them bombings, on U.S. soil every year—a level of terrorist activity 15 to 20 times that seen in most of the years since 9/11, even counting foiled plots as incidents. And in the nineyear period from 1970 to 1978, 72 people died in terrorist incidents, more than five times the number killed by jihadist terrorists in the United States in the almost nine years since 9/11.

A Rand report How to Defuse Iran’s Nuclear Threat, Bolster Diplomacy, Israeli Security, and the Iranian Citizenry.  The report says that threats of war are counter-productive and negotiation is the only viable solution.

Social Science Research Network (SSRN) paper:  Policing Terrorists in the Community, Sahar Aziz **

SPLC (Southern Poverty Law Center) published TERROR FROM THE RIGHT: 75 PLOTS, CONSPIRACIES AND RACIST RAMPAGES SINCE OKLAHOMA CITY and HATE AND EXTREMISM INTELLIGENCE REPORT

SPLC published Jihad Against Islam and The Anti-Muslim Inner Circle by Robert Steinback in their Summer 2011 Intelligence Report 6/11

The Tanenbaum Center published HATE GROUPS/HATE CRIMES, BULLYING/HARASSMENT

The Tanenbaum Center published OPPOSITION TO PLACES OF WORSHIP & RELIGIOUS PRACTICES IN THE U.S.

Time Magazine published a study THE SECRET WORLD OF EXTREME MILITIAS 

Triangle Center & Duke University published ANTI-TERROR LESSONS OF MUSLIM AMERICANS  Sheema Khan summarized this study:

The anti-terror study generated social science evidence about how and why Muslim-American communities have resisted radicalization and political violence. The authors found five characteristics that enabled these communities to counter radical messages from the Internet.

Public and private denunciations of terrorism: Contrary to public perception, mainstream Muslim groups have constantly issued statements condemning terrorism, drawing on both religious and secular arguments.

Methods of self-policing that prevent the growth of radicalization: These practices include confronting individuals who express radical ideology or support for terrorism; preventing extremist ideologues from preaching in mosques; communicating concerns about radical individuals to law-enforcement officials; and purging extremists from membership in local mosques.

The study points to examples where concerned roommates, parents or imams informed the police about radicalized individuals. As one imam told his congregants, “Don’t come here with that foolishness. I’ll call the police right now. And you can call me a snitch or a rat, but call me a Muslim.” Ironically, this vigilance has led to confrontations with “agitator” informants, along with warnings to Muslims to be wary of entrapment. The use of informants is a sore point between Muslim communities and the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

Muslim Americans also have adopted programs for youth to help identify individuals who react inappropriately to controversial issues, so they can be counselled and educated. Such programs should be adopted in Canada, including information on the signs of radicalization.

Importance of community-building: This reduces the social isolation of individuals who may be at risk of becoming radicalized. Strong social networks, educational programs and the provision of social services help identify risk-prone individuals.

Increased political engagement of Muslim Americans since 9/11: This channels grievances into democratic forums and promotes integration of Muslim Americans.

Compatibility between Muslim Americans’ U.S. and minority identities: This plays a key role against radicalization, since it counters the radical message that American values are hostile to Islam.

The study’s authors make a number of recommendations to bolster efforts against radicalization, including promoting public denunciations of terrorism by the media and public officials; increasing political engagement; improving community/law-enforcement relations; increasing civil-rights enforcement; and supporting enhanced religious literacy (Muslims with rigorous religious training are far less likely to radicalize).

Triangle Center published “MUSLIM AMERICAN TERRORISM SINCE 9/11:  AN ACCOUNTING A report Muslim-American Terrorism in the Decade Since 9/11 documents that concerns of counterterrorism officials about a potential wave of homegrown violent extremism have not materialized over the past two years. The study, “Muslim-American Terrorism in the Decade Since 9/11,” reports that 20 Muslim-Americans committed or were arrested for terrorist crimes in 2011, down from 26 in 2010 and 49 in 2009.  Charles Kurzman, the author of the report called terrorism by Muslim Americans “a minuscule threat to public safety.” Of about 14,000 murders in the United States last year, not a single one resulted from Islamic extremism, said Mr. Kurzman, a professor of sociology at the University of North Carolina.

Triangle Center on Terrorism & Homeland Security Muslim-American
Terrorism: Declining Further Charles Kurzman ** 2013

The U.S. Dept. of Justice published a Report on Terrorism 2002 to 2005

A University of Maryland study of state law enforcement agencies in 2007 found that “just as many state-police agencies view neo-Nazis as posing a serious threat to their own state’s security as consider Islamic Jihadists to pose a serious threat.”  When state law enforcement agencies were asked in that same study to identify the actual extremist groups operating within their state, “Islamic Jihadi” groups ranked 11th. Law enforcement authorities in 92% of responding states named neo-Nazis as operating within their borders, while 62% of the states named Muslim extremists. Here is the Top 10, in order: neo-Nazis, militia/patriot, racist skinheads, freemen/sovereign citizen, extreme animal rights, extreme environmentalists, KKK, Christian Identity, extreme anti-tax, and extreme anti-immigrant.  **

Wake Forest University School of Divinity, Center for Religion & Public Affairs - Religious Expression in American Public Life: A Joint Statement of Current Law ** 2010

West Point Combating Terrorism Center, Challengers from the Sidelines: Understanding America’s Violent Far-Right ** 2013

The World Organization for Resource Development and Education published A COMMUNITY BASED APPROACH TO COUNTERING RADICALIZATION: A PARTNERSHIP FOR AMERICA

In addition, The American Muslim (TAM) has published a whole series of collections of information called Muslim voices against terrorism and extremism which includes:
—  Fatwas & Formal Statements by Muslim Scholars & Organizations against terrorism and extremism
—  Statements and articles by individual Muslims against terrorism and extremism
—  Quotes from American Muslim community leaders and scholars against extremism and terrorism
—  Polls, statistics, and surveys relating to Islam and Muslims
*****************************************************************************************************

LIST OF POLLS, SURVEYS & STATISTICS RELATING TO ISLAM & MUSLIMS


1995

Barna Research Poll - 71% of born again Christians view impact of Islam as negative, 24% of non-Christians view Islam’s impact as negative.  American adults, Christians and non-Christians alike, regard Christianity and Judaism as having a positive influence on society. Islam, Buddhism, Scientology and Atheism received mixed reviews.  http://www.religioustolerance.org/reac_ter18a.htm


2001

American Muslim Poll (Zogby & Project MAPS) http://www.projectmaps.com/PMReport.htm

Faith-based initiatives: A poll conducted by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life showed that: 68% of American adults are concerned that faith-based programs might lead to too much government involvement with religion.  60% are concerned that religious groups funded with public money would proselytize recipients of social services, as allowed in President Bush’s faith-based initiative program.  78% were opposed to another major component in Bush’s proposal which would have allowed religious groups to discriminate in hiring staff by only hiring people who share their beliefs.  Most approve in principle of government funding of social programs run by religious groups. http://www.religioustolerance.org/sep_c_st5.htm


2002

ABC News Poll on Islam, http://abcnews.go.com/sections/us/World/sept11_islampoll_030911.html  Four months after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, 14 percent believed mainstream Islam encourages violence; today it’s 34 percent. Similarly, 43 percent now think Islam does not teach respect for the beliefs of non-Muslims — up sharply from 22 percent.

BBC Poll of British Muslims A big majority - 70% - do not believe the assertion - made repeatedly by President Bush and Tony Blair that the war on terrorism is not a war on Islam..  http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/today/reports/archive/politics/islam_poll.shtml

Beliefnet poll - 2002-FALL: The Ethics and Public Policy Center, a Washington think-tank, and Beliefnet, a religious Internet web site, commissioned a poll of 700 Fundamentalist and other Evangelical Protestant leaders. The poll was conducted by the Ray C. Bliss Institute of Applied Politics at the University of Akron, and was financed by a grant from the Pew Charitable Trusts. Results were released on 2003-APR-7. Half of the religious leaders responded; this is a very large return for a mail-in poll. The poll showed that:  77% had an unfavorable view of Islam; 13% had a favorable view.  72% believe that Islam opposes pluralism (in the sense of religious diversity) and democracy,  72% believe that the Sharia legal systems violate human freedom.  10% agreed with President George W. Bush that Islam is “a religion of peace.”  70% believe that Islam is a religion of violence.  17% believe that Muslims and Christian pray to the same God.  2% believe that all the world’s great religions are equally true and good.  http://www.religioustolerance.org/reac_ter18a.htm

CNN/ USA Today Gallup Poll shows that about one quarter of Americans surveyed have a favorable view of Muslim nations and more than two-thirds believe those countries would be better off if they adopted Western values

Hamilton College Muslim American Poll http://www.hamilton.edu/news/MuslimAmerica/MuslimAmerica.pdf 

Public Opinion Poll on Islam in the U.S. http://www.publicagenda.org/specials/terrorism/terror_pubopinion9.htm 

Public Opinion Poll on Islam Abroad http://www.publicagenda.org/specials/terrorism/terror_pubopinion8.htm


2003

A National State of Confusion http://archive.salon.com/opinion/feature/2003/02/06/iraq_poll/index_np.html

ADL Poll Shows Only 43% of Americans Feel Israel Is Threat to World Peace, http://www.ahram.org.eg/acpss/eng/ahram/2004/7/5/EGYP13.HTM

Majority Disapprove of War Strategy http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,1076460,00.html

PEW Forum on Religion and Politics, http://pewforum.org/docs/index.php?DocID=30

PEW Poll on Views of Affirmative Action http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=184

PEW Poll on Bush’s Ratings http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=210

PEW Poll: America’s Image Erodes in Europe http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=175


2004

A Year After Iraq War: Mistrust of America in Europe Ever Higher, Muslim Anger Persists, PEW Research Center, http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=206

Anti-Semitism Falls in Europe But Hostility to Israel Grows http://www.muslimnews.co.uk/news/news.php?article=7256

BBC Poll - America Is A Bigger Threat Than Terrorism http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3613217.stm

Bias Against Muslims Up 70%, CAIR POLL http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A61488-2004May2.html

Big Drop in Support for Iraq War http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2004/04/29/MNGOM6CPLJ1.DTL

British Muslims Desire to Integrate Wanes as War Perceived as War on Muslims http://politics.guardian.co.uk/polls/story/0,11030,1170210,00.html

Cornell University poll Cornell found that found 44 percent of Americans favor at least some restrictions on the civil liberties of Muslim Americans. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6729916/  and http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/media_and_society_research_group_msrg_survey/  And nearly 30 percent responded favorably to the ideas of requiring Muslims to register with the federal government, having undercover agents infiltrate Muslim organizations, and permitting the government to engage in racial profiling.  http://hnn.us/roundup/comments/9239.html

Detroit Mosque Study: Muslim Views on Policy and Religion http://ispu.us/reports/the_detroit_mosque_study.html  and http://www.altmuslim.com/family_comments.php?id=P1210_0_16_0_C

Do Americans Care About the Environment http://www.americanpolitics.com/20040322Bisbort.html

80% in Iraq Distrust Occupation Authority http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A22403-2004May12.html

Environment http://www.pollingreport.com/enviro.htm

Europeans Like bush Even Less Than Before http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/09/international/europe/09euro.html

Foreign Affairs and Defense Issues http://www.pollingreport.com/defense.htm

Georgetown University American Muslim Poll http://explore.georgetown.edu/news/?ID=1310

German poll shows rising unhappiness with Muslims in Europe http://www.islam-online.net/English/News/2004-12/19/article04.shtml

Hamilton College Muslim American Poll, http://www.hamilton.edu/news/MuslimAmerica/MuslimAmerica.pdf

Law and Civil Rights http://www.pollingreport.com/civil.htm#First

Mistrust of U.S. Growing Overseas, PEW Poll http://www.palestinechronicle.com/story.php?sid=20040319061449889

Profile of Muslim community, CUNY, http://www.gc.cuny.edu/studies/aris_part_two.htm

Priorities of American Voters http://www.pollingreport.com/prioriti.htm

Race and Ethnicity http://www.pollingreport.com/race.htm

Religion http://www.pollingreport.com/religion.htm

Rift Widens Between U.S. and the Rest of the World http://www.iht.com/ihtsearch.php?id=98482&owner=(IHT)&date=20030604123919

Separation of Church & State Public Opinion Polls http://www.religioustolerance.org/sep_c_st5.htm

Terror Backlash Hits Bush’s Votes http://observer.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,1179531,00.html

Terrorism http://www.pollingreport.com/terror.htm

U.S. Majority still Believes in Iraq’s WMD and Al Qaeda Ties, Jim Lobe http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0422-09.htm

U.S. Seen as an Occupying Force by Iraqi’s http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/0429/dailyUpdate.html

Zogby International Poll shows Arab views worldwide are becoming increasingly hostile to America


2005

Gallup poll, conducted in 10 nations that comprise 80 percent of the world’s Muslim population, found an average of only 31 percent of respondents per nation believed US objectives were centered on establishing democracy, Reuters reported.  http://www.islamonline.net/English/News/2005-12/10/article01.shtml

ISPU report Implications of the Detroit Mosque Study for other American Muslim Communities

PEW Global Attitudes Poll Islamic Extremism: Common Concern for Muslim and Western Publics - How Muslims and non-Muslims view each other http://pewglobal.org/reports/display.php?ReportID=248

Rasmussen poll says that Sixty-three percent (63%) of Americans believe the Bible is literally true and the Word of God http://legacy.rasmussenreports.com/2005/Bible.htm

Review of Religious Research Study shows changing Evangelical views on Islam.  Through conducting an analysis of popular evangelical books published before and after 9/11, the study finds that most of the post-9/11 literature draws sharper distinctions between Islam and Christianity, as well as asserting that Islam is essentially violent.  http://www.religionnews.com/press02/PR121405.html

 

2006

ABC News PollPublic views of Islam are one casualty of the post-Sept. 11, 2001 conflict: Nearly six in 10 Americans think the religion is prone to violent extremism, nearly half regard it unfavorably, and a remarkable one in four admits to prejudicial feelings against Muslims and Arabs alike.  http://abcnews.go.com/US/story?id=1700599

American Family Association Islam and America Poll http://www.afa.net/

CAIR Poll Shows U.S. Muslims Diverse, Integrated, Politically Active http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/poll_shows_us_muslims_diverse_integrated_politically_active/

CAIR Poll of American Public Opinion on Islam and Muslims 2006 http://www.cair.com/cairsurveyanalysis.pdf

Canada: Poll Shows Negative Perception of Islam http://www.hamiltonspectator.com/NASApp/cs/ContentServer?pagename=hamilton/Layout/Article_Type1&c=Article&cid=1153779011301&call_pageid=1020420665036&col=1112101662670

CBS News Poll Shows Perception of U.S. Muslims Growing Worse http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/04/12/national/main1494697.shtml

Gallup Poll: Iran Has Replaced Iraq as Country Americans Think Is Greatest Enemy http://www.sanluisobispo.com/mld/sanluisobispo/news/breaking_news/13953083.htm

Gallup Poll in 9 Muslim Countries Shows High Percentage Favor Women as Leaders http://www.upi.com/NewsTrack/view.php?StoryID=20060330-024731-6523r

Gallup Poll Shows Most Muslims Reject Terrorism http://www.voanews.com/english/2006-05-02-voa82.cfm

Gallup Poll: 4 in 10 Americans Prejudiced Against Islam http://poll.gallup.com/content/default.aspx?ci=24073

Gallup Poll: 39% of Americans Think Muslims Should Carry Special ID http://www.editorandpublisher.com/eandp/news/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1002984956

ICM Poll shows 90% of British Muslims are loyal to Britain, 99% believed the 7/7 attacks were wrong, and 80% want troops pulled from Iraq http://www.islam-online.net/English/News/2006-02/19/article04.shtml

PEW Survey of British Muslim attitudes - twice the number of British Muslims show concern about the rise of Islamic extremism - 43% - as Muslims elsewhere in Europe, but more Muslims want the British government to fight Islamic extremism than non-Muslims (56% to 49%), including a 48% support for surveillance of mosques (approximately equal to non-Muslims). http://pewglobal.org/commentary/display.php?AnalysisID=1010

Poll Says 68% of Israeli Jews Would Refuse to Live in Same Building as an Arab http://www.haaretzdaily.com/hasen/spages/697458.html

Poll Shows Britons See Islam as Threat to the West http://www.islam-online.net/English/News/2006-08/25/06.shtml

Poll: Evangelical Protestant Christians Most Distrustful of Muslims http://www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=32604

Poll: U.S. in Iraq Greater Danger to Stability Than Iran http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20060613/ap_on_re_us/america_s_image

Populus Poll on British Muslim attitudes - 74% feel fellow citizens view them with suspicion, 56% want the government to do more to combat extremism http://www.populuslimited.com/poll_summaries/2006_07_04_Times_ITV.htm

Summary of Polls Showing Increasing Negative Views of Islam and Muslims http://www.gulf-times.com/site/topics/article.asp?cu_no=2&item_no=82020&version=1&template_id=36&parent_id=16

Survey of Australian schoolchildren shows bias against Muslims http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/schoolchildren-cast-judgements-on-muslims/2006/02/05/1139074109950.htm 

University of Maryland, Program on International Public Attitudes Poll said 46 percent of Americans think that “bombing and other attacks intentionally aimed at civilians” are “never justified,” while 24 percent believe these attacks are “often or sometimes justified.” - Americans are more approving of terrorist attacks against civilians than any major Muslim country except for Nigeria. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0223/p09s01-coop.html

Terror Free Tomorrow poll showed polling results from the world’s most-populous Muslim countries – Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nigeria.  That poll found that 74 percent of respondents in Indonesia agreed that terrorist attacks are “never justified”; in Pakistan, that figure was 86 percent; in Bangladesh, 81 percent. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0223/p09s01-coop.html

Washington Post/ABC Poll Says 46% of Americans View Islam Negatively http://www.zaman.com/?bl=hotnews&alt=&trh=20060309&hn=30679 

Zogby Poll: Over 70 Million Americans Support New 9/11 Investigation http://news.yahoo.com/s/prweb/20060522/bs_prweb/prweb388743_4

UPI/Zogby International Poll: No consensus on status of Jerusalem

Gallup Poll Predicts History Will Judge Bush Harshly

UN report shows terrorism political not religious.

CAIR poll examines Muslim voting patterns.

Zogby Poll: One Third of U.S. Voters Believe in Christian Zionism

BBC poll: World against torture, Israel in favor.  Poll of 25 countries reveals that the majority of world’s population opposes torturing prisoners suspected of terror involvement. In Israel, over half of Jewish population supports using torture to get information from terrorists, while most Muslims oppose it

New CNI Poll Shows Americans Wary of Israel Lobby

CAIR poll: MAJORITY OF AMERICANS SUPPORT MIDEAST CEASE-FIRE

CBS Poll:  Shows Perception of U.S. Muslims Growing Worse


2007

AAI/APN Poll: Jewish & Arab Americans Both Want Two-State Solution http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/aai_apn_poll_jewish_arab_americans_both_want_two_state_solution/

American Jewish Committee’s poll on American Jewish attitudes towards the Middle East, domestic politics and more http://www.muzzlewatch.com/2007/12/12/new-poll-jewish-neocons-dont-represent-jews-duh/

BBC Global Poll Finds that Religion and Culture are Not to Blame for Tensions between Islam and the West http://www.globescan.com/news_archives/bbciswest/

Environics poll shows lack of contact leads to intolerance and Islamophobia http://www.canada.com/montrealgazette/news/story.html?id=750907fd-b93d-48b1-838e-5749edd9588e

Financial Times/Harris Poll of cross sections of adults in the five largest European countries and the United States looks at attitudes toward Muslims and finds differing opinions on Muslims as a threat to national security, prejudice towards Muslims and whether parents would object to a child marrying a Muslim.  http://www.businesswire.com/portal/site/google/index.jsp?ndmViewId=news_view&newsId=20070823005184&newsLang=en 

First Amendment Center Survey finds that most Americans think the founders wanted a Christian U.S. http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-09-11-amendment_N.htm

Gallup Poll Shows Islam and Democracy Not Incompatible http://www.voanews.com/english/2007-01-23-voa67.cfm

Gallup Poll showing religious background of those opposed and in favor of Iraq war http://whtt.org/index.php?news=2&id=1241 
Gallup Poll shows that About one-third of the American adult population believes the Bible is the actual word of God and is to be taken literally word for word. http://www.gallup.com/poll/27682/onethird-americans-believe-bible-literally-true.aspx

Islamic Human Rights Commission Poll on Islamophobia in the Media http://today.reuters.co.uk/news/articlenews.aspx?type=topNews&storyID=2007-01-25T182650Z_01_L25857138_RTRUKOC_0_UK-ISLAM-MOVIES.xml  The commission’s study, based on soundings taken from almost 1,250 British Muslims, also found that 62 percent felt the media was “Islamophobic” and 14 percent called it racist.

Israel and Iran share most negative opinions in 27 country poll by World Public Opinion http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/home_page/325.php?nid=&id=&pnt=325&lb=hmpg2  - the same poll also found that religion and culture are not to blame for tensions between Islam and the West http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/brglobalmultiregionra/317.php?nid=&id=&pnt=317&lb=brglm - and in 33 out of 37 countries people believe that the Iraq War has increased global terrorism http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/brglobalmultiregionra/172.php?nid=&id=&pnt=172&lb=brglm

Opinion Research Corporation released by CNN shows that 63% of Americans oppose a war with Iran http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/index.cfm/fuseaction/viewItem/itemID/15825

CNN Poll examining religious views in the United States.  59% of Christians are more likely to describe themselves as Christian first and American second (12% higher than the recent PEW Poll of American Muslim attitudes).  53% of Christian Americans are now less likely to see the possibility for peace between Islam and Christianity and 53% think conflict is inevitable between the two religions, up from 45 percent in 2003.  57 percent say they believe the Book of Revelations’ description of the violent end of the world, where all but Christians perish. Nearly one in five believes it will happen in their lifetime.  This is not surprising since 42% of Americans saw themselves as “Christian first” as opposed to “American first” according to a Pew Global Attitudes Project national survey conducted in 2006.

World public opinion poll:  losing Muslim hearts and minds, suggests that even allied Muslim countries believe the U.S. wants to weaken and divide the Islamic world.

PEW Research poll on American Muslim attitudes http://pewresearch.org/assets/pdf/muslim-americans.pdf  - 61% believe a way can be found for Israel & Palestine rights to coexist, one troubling statistic: 8% of US Muslims - and 15% of US Muslims under 30 - believe that suicide bombings can be often or sometimes justified in the defense of Islam.  comments:  Hassan Zillur Rahim, Glenn Greenwald

‘State of the First Amendment 2007’ Survey Shows Americans’ Mix of Opinion on Fundamental Freedoms.  Nearly two-thirds say nation’s founders intended a ‘Christian nation’

poll on American Jewish attitudes towards the Middle East

World Public Opinion Poll Finds Mixed Views About Bhutto’s Return

Zogby poll on prejudice in America.  More than 3/4 of young Arab Americans report discrimination. 

AAI/APN Poll: Jewish & Arab Americans Both Want Two-State Solution

AAI/ZOGBY Poll:  Muslims Across Globe Concerned About Crisis in Darfur

2008

Gallup Poll challenges Western perceptions of Islam.  It shows that the overwhelming majority of Muslims condemned the attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001 and other subsequent terrorist attacks, the authors of the study said in Washington.

Gallup Poll - analysis of 1 billion Muslim voices http://www.altmuslim.com/a/a/a/2681/

Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life Releases Results from a Landmark Survey on Religion in the U.S.  Study shows most detailed estimates to date of the size and demographic characteristics of religious groups in the U.S. and finds that religious affiliation is both very diverse and extremely fluid

PEW survey of global attitudes finds that Antisemitism and Islamophobia are rising across Europe http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/sep/18/islam.religion


2009

PEW Forum on Religion and Public Life poll on Religious Groups’ Views on Evolution


2010

An ABC News Poll shows that American Favorabilty Toward Islam Lowest Since Oct, 2001   http://tpmdc.talkingpointsmemo.com/2010/09/poll-american-favorabilty-toward-islam-lowest-ever.php

B’nai B’rith World Center poll finds 54% of Israel’s Jewish residents believe Jewish organizations that advocate for Israel with foreign governments should always support government’s policies http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3906457,00.html

A CBS News Poll found that fifty-five percent of Americans say they know someone who has negative feelings toward Muslims tied to the attacks, while roughly one in five say they themselves have such feelings. Forty percent say they don’t know anyone with such feelings, and three in four say they don’t personally harbor them.  http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503544_162-20016593-503544.html#ixzz1O7lh0s5p

Dutch poll shows Geert Wilders anti-Islam party extremely popular http://www.theage.com.au/world/antiislam-party-big-winner-in-dutch-poll-20100610-y0du.html  6/10

European poll:  Just over half of Europeans surveyed opposed allowing Islamic headscarves in schools but backed the presence of crucifixes in classrooms, according to a Spanish study obtained by AFP http://www.islamophobia-watch.com/islamophobia-watch/2010/4/28/poll-half-of-europeans-oppose-headscarf-in-schools.html

European poll:  More than half of voters in four other major European states back a push by France’s Nicolas Sarkozy to ban women from wearing the burka, according to an opinion poll for the Financial Times.  http://www.islamophobia-watch.com/islamophobia-watch/2010/3/2/poll-shows-support-for-burka-ban.html

Exploring Islam Foundation/YouGov poll about British Muslim communities http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/belief/2010/jun/08/muslim-poll-attitudes-extremism and http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/10251827.stm   6/10

A Gallup poll shows that many Americans take a dim view of Islam http://www.sltrib.com/faith/ci_14242651 1/10 It also concludes that the strongest predictor of prejudice against Muslims is whether a person holds similar feelings about Jews.  The Gallup poll asked Americans about their views of Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Buddhism and found that 53 percent see Islam unfavorably.  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/01/20/AR2010012004488.html?hpid=moreheadlines

German polls:  Germany: two polls on public attitudes towards Sarrazin controversy   http://www.islamophobia-watch.com/islamophobia-watch/2010/9/2/germany-two-polls-on-public-attitudes-towards-sarrazin-contr.html

A recent Harris Poll shows that ”... 57 percent of Republicans (32 percent overall) believe that Obama is a Muslim 45 percent of Republicans (25 percent overall) agree with the Birthers in their belief that Obama was “not born in the United States and so is not eligible to be president” 38 percent of Republicans (20 percent overall) say that Obama is “doing many of the things that Hitler did” Scariest of all, 24 percent of Republicans (14 percent overall) say that Obama “may be the Antichrist.”  John Avlon also notes that “The full results of the poll, which will be released in greater detail tomorrow, are even more frightening: including news that high percentages of Republicans—and Americans overall—believe that President Obama is “racist,” “anti-American” “wants the terrorists to win” and “wants to turn over the sovereignty of the United States to a one-world government.” The “Hatriot” belief that Obama is a “domestic enemy” as set forth in the Constitution is also widely held—a sign of trouble yet to come.”

Harris poll in Europe shows majority support for veil ban in France, Spain, Italy and UK http://www.islamophobia-watch.com/islamophobia-watch/2010/3/4/poll-shows-majority-support-for-veil-ban-in-france-spain-ita.html

Islamic Education and Research Academy (iERA) study found that three-quarters of non-Muslims believe Islam has provided a negative contribution to British society, and 63% of people surveyed did not disagree with the statement “Muslims are terrorists” and 94% agreed that “Islam oppresses women”. In addition to finding that 73% of respondents did not disagree with the statement “Islam cannot positively contribute to modern society”, the iERA poll produced some other disturbing statistics. 76% of respondents did not agree with the statement that Muslims positively engage in society. 72% did not agree with the statement “Muslims are law abiding”, while 71% did not agree with the statement “Muslims are peaceful”. 70% did not disagree with the statement “Muslims preach hatred”.
http://www.islamophobia-watch.com/islamophobia-watch/2010/8/3/poll-finds-widespread-ignorance-and-bigotry-towards-islam-an.html

PEW Poll shows that Obama’s approval rating slipping in Muslim majority countries.  6/10

New Wave Research poll shows that almost three quarters of people in Israel are against lifting their country’s current blockade of Gaza http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/view/35647/israelis_reject_lifting_gaza_blockade

PACE report warns of rising Islamophobia in European nations   http://www.todayszaman.com/news-213829-100-pace-report-warns-of-rising-islamophobia-in-european-nations.html

Pechter poll indicates that 84% of Jewish Israelis support the government’s attack on the flotilla and agree that all future ships bound for Gaza should be stopped “whatever it takes.” Only 7% of Jewish Israelis say that aid ships should be let through. Just 22% of Jewish Israelis are willing to see “humanitarian aid shipments” of any sort go to Gaza http://mwcnews.net/focus/analysis/3174-israeli-public-opinion.html

PEW Poll shows that a Majority of Pakistanis dislikes Taliban, dissatisfied with government http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/the-newspaper/front-page/35-Majority-dislikes-Taliban-dissatisfied-with-govt-survey-860

PEW Poll: 46% of GOP thinks Obama’s Muslim http://www.politico.com/blogs/joshgerstein/0810/Poll_46_of_GOP_thinks_Obamas_Muslim.html?showall 8/10 this belief is on the rise, rather than decreasing http://www.brendan-nyhan.com/blog/2010/08/obama-muslim-myth-on-the-rise.html

PEW Research Center: The Future of the Global Muslim Population - Projections for 2010-2030 http://pewforum.org/The-Future-of-the-Global-Muslim-Population.aspx

PEW Global Attitudes poll showed that A 59%-majority of Muslims in Egypt believed that democracy was preferable to any other kind of government. About one-in-five (22%), however, said that in some circumstances, a non-democratic government could be preferable, and another 16% said it did not matter what kind of government is in place for a person in their situation.  http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1874/egypt-protests-democracy-islam-influence-politics-islamic-extremism

PEW Forum on Religion and Public Life survey of Religious Groups’ Official Positions on Same-Sex Marriage

PEW Forum on Religion and Public Life report on Muslim Networks and Movements in Western Europe

Quinnipiac University released a poll showing that the majority of New York City voters are opposed to Cordoba House’s plan to build a mosque and Islamic cultural center near Ground Zero. The poll of 1,183 registered city voters showed 52 percent in opposition, 31 percent in favor, and 17 percent undecided.  http://blogs.villagevoice.com/runninscared/archives/2010/07/cordoba_house_p.php  The same poll showed that among voters who live in Manhattan - 46 percent of Manhattanites support the 13-story mosque and community center, called Cordoba House. Thirty-six percent of Manhattan voters oppose the proposal and 18 percent are undecided.  http://www.dnainfo.com/20100701/manhattan/manhattanites-support-mosque-near-ground-zero-poll-finds#ixzz0sSDL97ZT  7/10

Ramussen poll: Only 19% of Americans believe Israel is to blame for clash aboard Gaza-bound aid ship Mavi Marmara http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article25659.htm

South Asian Americans Leading Together (SAALT) report, From Macacas to Turban Toppers: The Rise in Xenophobic and Racist Rhetoric in American Political Discourse, documents intolerant remarks made by elected officials and those running for office. http://saalt.presstools.org/node/36213?q=node%2F36213

Scotland poll: Poll shows more work needed against Islamophobia in Scotland http://www.islamophobia-watch.com/islamophobia-watch/2010/8/11/poll-shows-more-work-needed-against-islamophobia-in-scotland.html

Siena College poll showed that 63 percent of New York voters surveyed oppose the Cordoba project, with 27 percent supporting it. That compares with 64 percent opposed and 28 percent in favor two weeks earlier, results within the polls’ sampling margins.  http://www2.timesdispatch.com/news/2010/aug/19/mosq19-ar-461361/  8/10

Time poll:  More than 4 in 10 Americans say they have an unfavorable view of Muslims, many more than those who say they have a negative view of Catholics, Protestants, Jews or Mormons, the poll found. And nearly half say Islam is more likely than other religions to encourage violence against nonbelievers.  Most, 55 percent, say that a majority of Muslims in this country are “patriotic Americans who believe in American values.” But that still leaves a significant minority that either say Muslim Americans do not believe in American values (25 percent) or expressed no opinion (21 percent). Turning to the issue of the Islamic community center, 6 in 10 Americans say they oppose building it near ground zero, including 85 percent of Republicans and 63 percent of independents. Democrats are closely divided, with 43 percent favoring it and 45 percent opposed. Nearly twice as many respondents say it would be an insult to 9/11 victims (44 percent say so) than say it would serve as a symbol of America’s religious tolerance (23 percent). Another 27 percent say they agree with both of these views.  http://thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/08/19/time-poll-many-americans-have-suspicious-views-of-islam/  8/10

University of Washington Institute for the Study of Ethnicity, Race & Sexuality poll shows that committed tea party supporters in Washington state are, by significant majorities, hostile to civil rights for African-Americans, immigrants, Muslims, and LGBT people. http://www.religiondispatches.org/dispatches/sarahposner/2747/polling_tea_partiers%3A_more_religion_questions,_please/

Washington Institute on Near East Policy Poll, suggests that the Muslim Brotherhood isn’t anywhere near as popular in Egypt as either Mubarak or paranoid conservatives believe them to be.  http://voices.washingtonpost.com/plum-line/2011/02/poll_no_constituency_for_musli.html

Zogby poll on American attitudes toward Muslims and Arabs http://www.aaiusa.org/dr-zogby/entry/gop-and-the-deepening-divide/


2011

An American Red Cross study found that found that a surprising majority—almost 60 percent—of American teenagers thought things like water-boarding or sleep deprivation are sometimes acceptable. More than half also approved of killing captured enemies in cases where the enemy had killed Americans. When asked about the reverse, 41 percent thought it was permissible for American troops to be tortured overseas. In all cases, young people showed themselves to be significantly more in favor of torture than older adults.  http://www.alternet.org/newsandviews/article/578084/shocking:_60_of_us_teens_believe_torture_is_ok/

A Fairleigh Dickinson University PublicMind Poll, found that some news sources make us less likely to know what’s going on in the world. In the most recent study, the poll asked New Jerseyans about current events at home and abroad, and from what sources – if any – they get their information. The conclusion:  Sunday morning news shows do the most to help people learn about current events, while some outlets, especially Fox News, lead people to be even less informed than those who say they don’t watch any news at all.

A Gallup Poll released the same day as Peter King’s hearings began shows that Americans are suspicious of Muslims living among them.  Overall, 52% of Americans say congressional hearings scheduled for Thursday are appropriate.  Republicans and Democrats differ significantly in their views of the House Homeland Security Committee hearings to investigate terrorist recruitment efforts in the American Muslim community, scheduled to begin Thursday morning in Washington. While 52% of all Americans say these hearings are appropriate, Republicans, at 69%, are much more likely to say this than are Democrats, at 40%. Independents’ views are similar to the national average, with 51% supporting the hearings.  http://www.gallup.com/poll/146540/Republicans-Democrats-Disagree-Muslim-Hearings.aspx

A Gallup poll released in August “Muslim Americans: Faith, Freedom, and the Future” - A few points from the executive summary of the report:
— At least 4 in 10 in every major religious group in the U.S. say Americans are prejudiced toward Muslim Americans, with Jews (66%) saying this in slightly higher numbers than Muslims (60%).
— Despite believing that they are often the victims of intolerance, Americans who practice Islam are among the most tolerant of U.S. faith groups studied. Muslim Americans’ combined integration tolerance scores — a measure of their appreciation for religious pluralism — are higher than those of Protestant Americans, Catholic Americans, and Jewish Americans and are matched only by those of Mormon Americans.
— Muslim Americans who attend religious services at least once a week have higher levels of civic engagement and report less stress and anger than do other U.S. Muslims who attend religious services less frequently. This raises the possibility of community leaders using mosques as a mobilizing platform to push Muslim Americans toward greater civic engagement. 
— Jews and Muslims in America hold many views in common. 
— American Muslims have little confidence in their national organizations.  http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/pew_report
— This poll also found that American Muslims are the least likely to consider any attacks on civilians to be justified.  13% of Muslims and 24% of non-Muslims refused to rule out attacks on civilians under any circumstances ** and **

ISPU report Countering Religion or Terrorism: Selective Enforcement of Material Support Laws Against Muslim Charities

A Le Monde poll showed that four in 10 French and German people see Muslims living in their country as a “threat” http://www.islamophobia-watch.com/islamophobia-watch/2011/1/4/muslims-seen-as-threat-in-france-germany.html 

PEW Poll - The public remains divided over whether Islam is more likely than other religions to encourage violence among its believers. Currently, 40% say the Islamic religion is more likely than others to encourage violence while 42% say it is not. The poll found divisions in attitudes towards Islam by age, politics, and religious affiliation.  By roughly three-to-one (66% to 21%), conservative Republicans say Islam encourages violence more than other religions. Moderate and liberal Republicans are divided – 46% say Islam is more likely to encourage violence, 47% say it is not. By more than two-to-one (61% to 29%), liberal Democrats say that Islam is not more likely than other religions to promote violence. Conservative and moderate Democrats, by a smaller margin (48% to 31%), agree.    Fully 67% of those who agree with the Tea Party movement say Islam is more associated with violence than other religions. Among those who disagree with the Tea Party, the balance of opinion is nearly reversed – 62% say Islam is no more likely than other religions to promote violence while 24% say it is. Among the large share of the public that offers no opinion of the Tea Party, 38% say Islam is more likely to promote violence while about the same number (41%) disagrees.      A clear majority of white evangelical Protestants (60%) say that Islam is more likely to encourage violence than are other religions. Far fewer white mainline Protestants (42%) and white Catholics (39%) express this view. And by nearly two-to-one (56% to 30%), the religiously unaffiliated say that the Islamic religion does not encourage violence more than others.  http://people-press.org/report/714/  and http://www.politicsdaily.com/2011/03/09/poll-finds-sharp-partisan-divide-on-islam-violence-connection/

PEW Poll shows that one in four people in the U.S. said that they would be less likely to support a presidential candidate who is Mormon.  Sixty-one percent of those questioned said they would be less likely to support a presidential candidate who did not believe in God. Forty-five percent said the same for a Muslim contender.  http://baldwinnewsnow.com/poll-atheist-muslim-candidates-worry-voters-p1505-104.htm
 
A PEW survey shows that image of the United States has soured in Muslim nations in the past year http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20110517/pl_afp/mideastconflictusobamaislam 2011

PEW Poll Muslim Americans: No Signs of Growth in Alienation or Support for Extremism ** 2011

Pew Global Attitudes Project, a project of the Washington, D.C.-based Pew Research Center, shows that in six predominantly-Muslims nations recently surveyed, little support was found for bin Laden.  http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503543_162-20058876-503543.html  and http://pewglobal.org/2011/05/02/osama-bin-laden-largely-discredited-among-muslim-publics-in-recent-years/

Pew Forum report on “The Religious Composition of the 112th Congress” found that on Capitol Hill, there are no elected officials who are atheists http://onfaith.washingtonpost.com/onfaith/religious-right-now/2011/01/no_gods_no_masters_no_members_of_congress.html

PEW poll The American-Western European Values Gap found that American Christians are more likely than their Western European counterparts to think of themselves first in terms of their religion rather than their nationality; 46 percent of Christians in the U.S. see themselves primarily as Christians and the same number consider themselves Americans first. In contrast, majorities of Christians in France (90 percent), Germany (70 percent), Britain (63 percent) and Spain (53 percent) identify primarily with their nationality rather than their religion. Among Christians in the U.S., white evangelicals are especially inclined to identify first with their faith; 70 percent in this group see themselves first as Christians rather than as Americans, while 22 percent say they are primarily American.  This is the flip side of the Gallup poll from earlier this year.  http://www.pewglobal.org/2011/11/17/the-american-western-european-values-gap/?src=prc-headline

PEW Forum on Religion and Public Life report on The Future of the Global Muslim Population: Projections for 2010-2030

Post-ABC News polls show that public sentiment toward Islam has become more negative in recent years in Post-ABC News polls. A September survey found more people held an unfavorable than favorable view of Islam by 49 to 37 percent. That is a reversal from an October 2002 poll in which 47 percent were favorable vs. 39 percent unfavorable.  http://voices.washingtonpost.com/behind-the-numbers/2011/03/poll_investigating_radical_ame.html

A Public Religion Research Institute poll in partnership with Religion News Service, reveals three powerful forces shaping how the public thinks about Rep. King’s upcoming hearings and American Muslims: fear, fairness and Fox News.

A majority (56%) of Americans say that the upcoming Congressional hearings to investigate alleged extremism in the American Muslim community are a good idea, compared with 29% who say they are a bad idea. Approval of the hearings varies considerably by political and religious affiliation.
•Men are more likely than woman to believe the hearings are a good idea (61% to 51%). Women are more than twice as likely as men to say they do not know whether it is a good or bad idea (17% to 8%).
•More than 7-in-10 (71%) Republicans say the hearings are a good idea compared to less than half (45%) of Democrats and 56% of Independents.
•More than three-quarters (76%) of those who most trust Fox News say it is a good idea compared to only 45% of those who most trust CNN and 28% of those who most trust Public television.
•Seven-in-ten white evangelicals say the hearings are a good idea, compared to roughly half of white mainline Protestants (50%) and the unaffiliated (49%).
More than 7-in-10 (72%) Americans believe Congress should investigate religious extremism anywhere it exists and not just focus on the American Muslim community. Support for this broader approach is strong across political and religious affiliation groups, including 77% of Republicans, and 73% of white evangelicals. http://www.publicreligion.org/research/?id=435

Finally, the survey revealed a remarkable Fox News effect on attitudes about the upcoming hearings and American Muslims. Holding other characteristics constant (e.g., party affiliation, age, education, gender, etc), those who most trust Fox News to give accurate information on current events and politics are four times as likely as those who most trust other TV news sources to say the upcoming hearings are a good idea. Trust in Fox News was the strongest single independent predictor of views on this issue—stronger than party affiliation, religious affiliation, education, or a range of other demographic factors.  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-p-jones-phd/fear-fairness-and-fox-new_b_830350.html

A Rasmussen report found that 10% of all voters think American Muslims are speaking out enough against potential terrorist attacks in the United States. Fifty-seven percent (57%) disagree and say they are not speaking out enough. One-in-three voters (34%) are not sure.  Similarly, 69% of GOP voters and 60% of unaffiliateds say Muslims in this country are not speaking out enough about the threat of domestic terrorist attacks, a view shared by just 40% of Democrats.  **

Uncovering Bias report The ‘Ground Zero Mosque’ Case Study How did the world’s news media cover the “Ground Zero Mosque” controversy?

A Vanderbilt University poll of Tennessee residents showed that 62.6 percent of respondents believe Muslims should have the same rights as other groups to build houses of worship, while 37.4 percent believe local communities should be able to prohibit construction of mosques.  http://www.tennessean.com/section/projects11


2012

Amnesty International report on Choice and Prejudice: Discrimination Against Muslims in Europe

Arab-American Institute Poll (Zogby) THE AMERICAN DIVIDE:HOW WE VIEW ARABSAND MUSLIMS ** 2012

A Pew Poll Promotes False Tradeoff Between Military Action And Permitting Iran To Acquire A Nuclear Weapon.

PEW Research Center Poll Largely Negative Views of Ahmadinejad in Muslim Countries ** 2012

A PEW Global Attitudes Poll shows high unfavorable ratings for the terror group Al Qaeda among Muslims across six different countries.  The poll conducted March 19 to April 13, 2012, finds majorities – and mostly large majorities – expressing negative views of the terrorist group in Egypt, Jordan, Pakistan, Turkey and Lebanon.

PEW Forum Poll - The World’s Muslims: Unity and Diversity ** 2012

Pew Forum Poll, More See “Too Much” Religious Talk by Politicians A new survey finds signs of public uneasiness with the mixing of religion and politics. The number of people who say there has been too much religious talk by political leaders stands at an all-time high since the Pew Research Center began asking the question more than a decade ago. And most Americans continue to say that churches and other houses of worship should keep out of politics. ** 2012


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