Pamela Geller Is Wrong About “Islamic Jew Hatred Commanded by the Qur’an” - updated 5/4/2015

Pamela Geller Is Wrong About “Islamic Jew Hatred Commanded by the Qur’an”

by Sheila Musaji

Those of us who have followed Pamela Geller’s writings and speeches have seen her use this phrase Islamic Jew-hatred commanded by the quran or mandated by the Qur’an or “a 1,400-year history of Islamic persecution, subjugation and slaughter of the Jews” many, many, many times.

In a previous article Pamela Geller’s False Claim that Muslims Curse Christians and Jews in Their Daily Prayers I discussed one aspect of her false claims about “Islamic Jew hatred”.  Many of the issues raised about particular Qur’anic verses are discussed here, and to misrepresentations of many Arabic/Qur’anic terms here.

This past week, Geller was scheduled to speak on the topic of “Islamic Jew-Hatred: The Root Cause of the Failure to Achieve Peace” in an event sponsored by the Zionist Organization of America (ZOA) and hosted by the Jewish Federation of Los Angeles.  The event was cancelled at that location, but she gave the speech at another location.

Geller is wrong, but sadly, there are many who follow her bigoted ravings and repeat them as if they are facts.  Robert Spencer, her partner in the hate group SIOA, reprints and magnifies her pronouncements, and numerous Islamophobic sites reprint and repeat.  This “Islamic Jew Hatred commanded by the Qur’an” is the current Islamophobic meme that they are attempting to popularize.

It is true that there are Muslims who are anti-Semites, as there are Jews who are Islamophobes.  It is true that some Jews, Muslims, and Christians have interpreted scriptural passages in such a way that they seemed to justify their particular prejudices.  It is true that the Torah, the New Testament, and the Qur’an all have passages that may be interpreted in selective ways. 

It is true that there have been translations and commentaries on the Qur’an that have included such anti-Semitic interpretations (for example the Hilali-Khan translation and commentary), just as it is true that there have been translations and commentaries on the Torah (for example Torat Hamelech/King’s Torah) that have included anti-gentile interpretations. 

It is also true that relations between Arabs and Israelis, and between Jews and Arabs and Muslims have been very badly strained in the past 75 years due to the Israeli Palestinian conflict.  This political issue has led some Muslims and some Jews to take a “zero sum” position and see all members of the other group as the enemy.  It is true that injustices have been committed. 

It is not true that bigoted interpretations of scriptural passages are the only interpretations (either by Jewish, Christian, or Muslim scholars), either historically or currently.  It is not true that Jews and Muslims have not spoken out against these bigoted strains within their own religion.  It is not true that Muslims and Jews have not condemned those who have called for violence.  It is not true that relations between Jews and Muslims have always been bad, either historically or currently.  It is not true that Muslims and Jews cannot be friends or respect each other. 

In an article on the similarities between anti-Semitism and Islamophobia, I said

For Jewish and Christian members of the Islamophobia industry, I would appeal to you to consider that there is no claim about some particular Imam somewhere saying something extreme or just plain stupid that can’t be matched by a Rabbi or a Reverend doing the same.  There is no act of violence carried out by Muslims that can’t be matched by those carried out by Christians and Jews.  There is no community that is free of criminals and hateful people.  There is no more violence in the Qur’an than in the Torah or the New Testament.  There is no religious community that doesn’t have individuals (even individuals who should know better) who attempt to use religion to justify their wrong actions, or who make distorted interpretations of their religion to justify themselves.

Jews, Christians, and Muslims need to step up and be counted, do what they can to marginalize their own extremists, and stop demonizing each other.  American Muslim Imams And Community Leaders issued a strong statement against Holocaust Denial & anti-Semitism.   In 2009 when a speaker at the ISNA conference made an anti-Semitic statement, ISNA apologized to the Jewish community.  The ADL has issued statements against Islamophobia and anti-Muslim bigotry.   There are many interfaith efforts to build bridges and work cooperatively on the many issues of mutual concern.

However, it seems that much too often, it is the voices of hate and division that get the most media attention and therefore have an opportunity to spread their poison more widely. 

All of us as members of whatever faith group need to counter hateful speech with thoughtful speech, and to be aware that such tendencies exist among all groups.  As Hans Kung has pointed out so beautifully, “There can be no peace among nations until there is peace among the religions.  There can be no peace among the religions without dialogue among the religions”. Somehow we must find a way to change the diatribe into dialogue (as Muslim scholars have requested in the Common Word document) in the interest of working together towards peace. 

Anti-Semitism is wrong, racism is wrong, homophobia is wrong, and Islamophobia is wrong.  Decent people need to make it clear that expressions of hatred towards anyone are simply not socially acceptable.

A few years ago when a bigoted speaker, Amir Abdel Malik Ali, was invited to speak by a Muslim student group, Hussein Ibish wrote an article protesting this in which he said

It is immoral and counterproductive to promote extreme and anti-Semitic rhetoric. Moreover, it is impossible to take a serious and effective stance against “Islamophobia” while promoting or condoning anti-Semitism. These two forms of bigotry are intimately connected, both thematically and historically. Neither the Jewish community nor the Islamic community can advance its legitimate interests or perspectives by promoting fear and hatred of one another.

If Muslims were “mandated” or “required” to hate Jews, then did the American Muslim Imams And Community Leaders who issued a strong statement against Holocaust Denial & anti-Semitism read some different Qur’an?  Did Reza Aslan who co-edited the book Muslims and Jews in America with Aaron Tapper read some different Qur’an?

If Muslims were “mandated” or “required” to hate Jews as a religious obligation, then how is it that we can find so many stories such as these:

A TAM collection of many stories about Muslims Who Fought Against the ‘Real’ Fascists & Nazis about Muslim soldiers who fought in WWII against these forces, and about ordinary Muslims who saved Jews from certain death at the hands of the Nazis.

A Muslim who helped Jews attacked on a New York subway. 

A Muslim who helped build a Fayetteville synagogue. 

Muslims and Jews participating together in Mosque Synagogue “Twinning”. 

Muslims giving space in their mosque for members of Chabad of East Bronx, an ultra-Orthodox synagogue, to worship when they lost their facility. 

Muslim and Jewish Students at USC participated in a Skid Row food distribution and clean-up sponsored by Ansar Service Partnership and USC Hillel.

Children of Abraham: Jews and Muslims in Conversation is an interfaith dialogue program jointly organized and facilitated by the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) and the Union for Reform Judaism (URJ).

In Libya, a 2,000 year old Jewish Shul has been protected by a Muslim family for three generations.  Mohamed Madi is the latest of three generations who have secured the Yefren shul. His grandfather protected Yefren’s Jews with a rifle in 1948. Under Gaddafi, his father secretly tended to the synagogue. The Madis also look after the rabbi’s house. Such guardianship, he says, is about “honour and respect for our neighbours, and for their religion”.  “We have a very good relationship with the Muslims of Yefren,” says Jakov Guetta, grandson of Yefren’s last rabbi, now living in Israel. “The Amazigh are special people, good people. They protected the Jewish people from the Nazis in the war. We have had a very good relationship for hundreds of years.” He recalls Yefren’s Jewish history as one featuring “powerful things, miracles, everything”.

The acclaimed French film “Free Men” (“Les Hommes Libres”), about Muslims saving Jews in Nazi occupied Paris is scheduled to be released in the U.S. this year. 

The Holocaust Center of Orlando, Florida is opening an exhibit on the Albanian Muslims who saved Jews during the Holocaust.  It is co-hosted by the Islamic Society of Central Florida. 

Muslims and Jews gathered together in the East New York neighborhood of Brooklyn to participate in the kickoff event for United in Service: The Jewish Muslim Volunteer Alliance (JMVA). They came came from the Council for the Advancement of Muslim Professionals New York Chapter, Uri L’Tzedek: Orthodox Social Justice, and Yeshivat Chovevei Torah Rabbinical School.

More than 150 clergy and laity of Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist and other faiths gathered at the Building Bridges Coalition of Staten Island to attend an interfaith Seder.  The ADAMS Center in Virginia hosted an interfaith Seder

These are the Muslims and Jews who are actually living their faith in such a way that they make the world a little brighter.  These are the Muslims and Jews who give hope to all of us that it is possible to find a way to peace and mutual respect.

Here on TAM, we have been publishing articles urging dialogue, understanding and mutual respect for almost 25 years.  There are many listed at the bottom of this article.  Here are just a few of those articles that make the point that it is not Islam that is responsible for the fact that some Muslims are anti-Semitic, it is human weakness.

In the article Is There Anti-Semitism in The Qur’an? Dr. Muzammil H. Siddiqi said

Anti-Semitism means condemning and hating a people because of their Semitic race. Anti-Semitism is bigotry and racism. Like all racism it is wrong and it has no place in Islam or in Islamic scripture. The Qur’an does not allow hate against any race, nationality or color. God says in the Qur’an:

“O people, We have created you from a male and female and made you into races and tribes so that you may know each other. Indeed the noblest of you in the sight of God are those who are the most pious among you. And Allah knows every thing and is aware of every thing.” (49:13)

Throughout the history of Islam, Muslims have never used passages from the Qur’an to justify acts of anti-Semitism. The ill-effects of racism, including ethnic cleaning, genocide and Holocaust, which has been suffered by Jews and non-Jews alike over the past several centuries, has never been done under the banner of any passages from the Qur’an. Jews were among the earliest converts to Islam (in Medina) and, throughout the Middle Ages, Jews found sanctuary to practice their own religion under Islamic rule. It is truly disappointing and naive to ignore more than 1400 years of history and learned discourse on the Qur’an and argue that the current political situation in the Middle East has its roots in passages from the Qur’an.

As with all scriptures, passages in the Qur’an must be read within the proper context. The Qur’an was not just revealed for Muslims, but for all people, including Jews and Christians. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was in the line of previous Prophets of God, including Prophets Abraham, Moses and Jesus, and the Qur’an is in the line of previous scriptures revealed by God. The Qur’an does not condemn the Semitic race and, in fact, accords Jews a special status given their shared prophetic traditions with Islam. The Qur’an instead criticizes those Jews who turned away from God’s authentic message and admonishes those who scorned and ridiculed Prophet Muhammad and the message of the Qur’an. Such criticism is similar to the criticism against Jews found in other scriptures, including the Hebrew Bible, and should be taken by all people as a reminder and warning against forsaking and straying from the authentic message of God. Such specific criticism has never been interpreted by learned scholars of the Qur’an to incite hatred against Jewish people and should not be confused with anti-Semitism.

The Qur’an speaks extensively about the Children of Israel (Bani Isra’il) and recognizes that the Jews (al-Yahud) are, according to lineage, descendants of Prophet Abraham through his son Isaac and grandson Jacob. They were chosen by God for a mission (44:32) and God raised among them many Prophets and bestowed upon them what He had not bestowed upon many others (5:20). He exalted them over other nations of the earth (2:47, 122) and granted them many favors.

Passages in the Qur’an which criticize the Jews fall primarily into two categories. First, the Qur’an speaks of how some of the Children of Israel turned away from the authentic message revealed to them. They disobeyed God and showed ingratitude for God’s favors on them. They lost the original Tawrat and introduced their own words and interpretations in the divine books. They became arrogant and claimed that they were God’s children and went about vaunting their position as His most chosen people (4:155; 5:13, 18). They also brazenly committed sins and their rabbis and priests did not stop them from doing so (5:63, 79). God raised His Prophet Jesus among them so that he might show them several miracles and thereby guide them to the right path, but they rejected him, attempted to kill him, and even claimed that they had indeed killed him although they had not been able to do so (4:157, 158). God specifically addresses the Children of Israel in many of these passages. This is important, because it shows that the message of the Qur’an was intended for all people, including the Jews, and the criticism was directed against a specific group of people for their specific actions. This criticism should be distinguished from cursing a people merely because of their race.

The second type of criticism of the Jews is found in passages including those you referenced from Surah al-Ma’idah (5:60-64). These verses criticize the Jews and Christians who ridiculed Prophet Muhammad and his message. They made mockery and sport of his call to prayer, and they rebuked him even though he was calling them to believe in what God revealed to him and to what was revealed before him through their own Prophets. They became spiteful towards him and rejected him since he did not belong to the Children of Israel (2:109; 4:54).

The Qur’an specifically notes that such criticism is not directed against all Jews. Even when the Qur’an criticizes the Jews it always notes that “among them there are some…” who are pious and righteous people, who command what is right and forbid what is wrong and try to excel each other in acts of charity and goodness. The Qur’an says that such people are assured that whatever good they will do will not be denied them and they shall receive their reward with God (3:113-115). It further says,

“Of the people of Moses there is a section who guide and do justice in the light of truth.” (7:159) “We broke them up into sections on this earth. There are among them some that are the righteous, and some that are the opposite. We have tried them with both prosperity and adversity: in order that they might turn (to Us)... As to those who hold fast by the Book and establish regular Prayer, never shall We suffer the reward of the righteous to perish.” (7:168-170)

Taking a few passages from the Qur’an out of proper historical and textual context will not give a proper understanding of the religious scripture. This is not only true of the Qur’an but also of the Bible. Many passages from the Bible also criticize the Jews. Read the Hebrew Bible, particularly Micah (Chapter 3:1-12) and Hosea (Chapter 8:1-14), in which these prophets condemned the Jews “who abhor justice and pervert all equity” and who “build Zion with blood and Jerusalem with wrong.” These prophets cursed Israel as a “useless vessel among nations,” and called for the curse of God to “send a fire upon [Judah’s] cities” and to make Jerusalem “a heap of ruins.” Prophet Ezekiel called Israel, “the house of rebels and a rebellious nation.” (Ezek. Chapter 2)  Similarly, in the Book of Deuteronomy (28:16-68), Moses warns the Jews that God “will send upon you curses, confusion, and frustration, in all that you undertake to do, until you are destroyed and perish quickly, on account of the evil of your doings, because you have forsaken me” (28:20). In the Gospel of Matthew (23:13-39), Jesus repeatedly admonishes the Jews for their hypocrisy and injustice, and condemns them for the killing of past prophets. Jesus says, “You serpents, you brood of vipers, how are you to escape being sentenced to hell?” Further he says “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, killing the prophets and stoning those who are sent to you! How often would I have gathered your children together as a hen gathers her brood under her wings, and you would not! Behold, your house is forsaken and desolate.”

It would indeed seem strange if, based on these passages, one were to argue that the Bible, the Hebrew Prophets and Jesus were anti-Semitic and called for the destruction of all Jews and present-day Israel. Yet, questioning passages from the Qur’an as anti-Semitic is similarly without merit.

In the article Islam and the Charge of Anti-Semitism,  Asma Afsaruddin said

The well-known Jewish economic historian of the medieval Mediterranean world, S. D. Goitein, observes in one of his works that a Jewish document circulating in the Middle Ages described Islam as “an act of God’s mercy.”  Having been bombarded by the term “Islamic anti-Semitism” in the Western popular media, many will do a double-take on reading this today.

Yet, significant historical evidence can be harnessed to support this assessment made by the very people that Islam supposedly regards with disdain.  Jews, like their Christian counterparts, in the Middle East, North Africa, and medieval Spain under Islamic rule, enjoyed considerable autonomy within their communities, being governed by their own religious leaders and laws. Although their circumstances were far from idyllic, Jews in the Islamic world on the whole led far less restricted lives than their brethren in medieval Europe.  As Bernard Lewis, another Jewish author, pointed out in his book The Jews of Islam, there is no theological basis in Islam for prejudice against Jews as such.  After all, Jews are portrayed in the Qur’an (2:62, etc.) as constituting a salvific community, just as Muslims and Christians do.

However, like religious and ethnic minorities in practically all societies throughout time, Jews were occasionally subjected to repressive and discriminatory measures. These measures tended to be primarily contingent on specific political circumstances and the whims of local rulers in various historical settings, sometimes justified on the basis of exclusivist (mis)interpretations of religious texts.  To say this is not to exonerate such acts but to point to their historically contingent and ad-hoc nature, as opposed to consistent and institutionalized policies of discrimination.

The historical record taken as a whole fails to support the claim made in some circles today that persecution of Jews in the medieval Islamic world was endemic and systematic and that it helps explain current tempers in the Middle East.  In fact, the existence of relative toleration and acceptance of religious minorities in various Islamic societies are regarded by many historians as rather unique by the standards of the pre-modern period.  While medieval Europe routinely associated Jews with the devil and attributed murderous attitudes to them, “classical Islam did not display such irrational thinking about the Jews,” affirms Mark Cohen, who teaches Jewish history at Princeton University.

Christians and Jews actively contributed, for example, to the overall economic and intellectual life in these societies. What has been described as a Judeo-Arabic or Judeo-Islamic civilization reached its apogee in Muslim Spain.  Jews, like Christians, occasionally attained high positions in various Islamic administrations. In the fifteenth century, the Muslim sultan of Fez ‘Abd al-Haq named the Jewish Aaron Ben Battas as his prime minister. When the celebrated Jewish philosopher Moses ben Maimonides, who had served as Saladdin’s court physician, died in 1204,  his death was officially mourned by Jews and Muslims alike for three days in Cairo.  Maimonides, after all, was not an outsider. Called in Arabic Musa ibn Maymun, he wrote most of his works in Arabic and moved easily in Muslim and Jewish circles. During the Crusades, King Richard the First tried to lure Ibn Maymun away to his court in Europe but the latter declined, preferring to stay with his Muslim patrons.

Evidence of Jewish-Muslim solidarity may be found throughout the pre-modern and early modern periods. Medieval Jews and Muslims had joint custodianship of religious shrines, like that of Ezekiel in Iraq. Through the early modern period, Muslims and Jews sometimes made common political cause against injustice. For instance, during the Dreyfus affair of the late nineteenth century in France when a French Jewish soldier was unfairly accused of espionage there, public opinion in Arab countries was critical of the bigotry against Jews prevalent in French society at that time. Some Jewish scholars of Islam in the early twentieth century, like the Hungarian Ignaz Goldziher, who studied at the famous al-Azhar university in Cairo, condemned in his writings the bias displayed by some European Orientalists towards Muslims and Semites in general.

The testimony of medieval Jews to Islam’s merciful nature, as mentioned by Goitein, stands today in stark contrast to the charges of anti-Semitism now being hurled liberally at Muslims and their societies. These charges imply that innate prejudice towards Jews was and remains a hallmark of the Islamic tradition and practices. This is an unfair, monolithic characterization of a variegated religious tradition which has enshrined tolerance in its foundational texts but whose practitioners, admittedly, have not consistently practiced it.  Convenient amnesia of an earlier period of Muslim-Jewish coexistence and even symbiosis, which left a lasting contribution to human civilization as we now know it to be, permits the formulation of such totalizing statements. Those who have a better sense of history will point rather to the role of specific factors, such as the current Middle East crisis and a perceived Western tilt towards Israel at the expense of Arab nations, in provoking expressions of hostile sentiments towards specifically Israelis, and by extension sometimes, Jews in a number of Islamic societies today.

Goitein’s observation should serve to remind us that manifestation of anti-Jewish sentiment in parts of the contemporary Islamic world, indefensible as it is, should be seen in their proper historical and political contexts.  His observation should also prod Muslims into pondering why the merciful nature of their religion seems less than evident today in the view of a considerable cross-section of people.  The Qur’an (5:8) warns us, “Stand up firmly for God, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others towards you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice.” Even in the face of immense wrong-doing, believers are counseled by the Qur’an to hold fast to the requirements of justice and fairness in their dealings with others.  There are no ifs or buts involved in this verse.  This is an absolute commandment that cannot be contravened under any circumstance.  This divine counsel has never been more relevant in our lives today than at the present time and it should serve to mobilize us into stamping out bigotry among ourselves, whatever its cause may be.

In the article Jews in the Qur’an: An Introduction,  Aisha Y. Musa said

Today, it often seems as if the relations between Muslims and Jews are dominated by bigotry, intolerance, and even downright hostility. Some claim that Muslim hostility toward Jews is taught in the Qur’an itself. How does the Qur’an portray the Jews? Is it inherently hostile toward them? Are they described, as some have claimed, as apes and swine”? The simple answer to the latter question is no, the Qur’an never says the Jews are “apes and swine”. We will take a closer look at this claim later in this essay. Before that, however, let us take a broader look at the overall image of Jews in the Qur’an. The present essay focuses entirely on the Qur’an and is meant as an introduction. Beyond the Qur’an, Muslim opinion is also shaped by the Prophetic traditions (Hadith) and centuries of commentaries and interpretations. Future essays will examine other such sources and aspects of the question.

There are approximately 60 verses in the Qur’an that speak directly about or to the Jews. Two thirds of these use the phrase “Children of Israel” (bani Isra’il), others use the terms “Jews” (yahud) or “those who are Jewish” (alladhina hadu). In addition to verses specifically about or addressing the Jews, the Qur’an also speaks of the people of the Book (ahl al-kitab) and “those who have been given the Book” (alladhina utu al-kitab). These verses are generally understood to refer to both the Christians and the Jews, those who received the scriptures which preceded the Qur’an. The Qur’an also mentions the Torah more than a dozen times. It also mentions the Pslams of David. In addition to the variety of verses that speak to or about the Jews, chapter 17 of the Qur’an is entitled “The Children of Israel.”

In order to better understand the Qur’an’s portrayal of the Jews it is important to understand the Qur’an’s portrayal of religion itself. Right religion, according to the Qur’an, is submission to God (lit. islam in Arabic). Those who submit to God are, by literal definition, muslim. Thus, islam, in its generic, literal meaning is the religion of all the prophets and messengers from Noah to Abraham to Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad, according to the Qur’an (10:71-72, 84; 2:128-131; 5:110-111). Thus, there is a distinction between the Qur’anic use of the term muslim as a generic term, which refers to someone who submits to God, and the proper noun Muslim, which refers to a follower of the religion founded by Muhammad in the seventh century. Does one need to be a Muslim to be a muslim? Must a Jew who recognizes Muhammad as a messenger and the Qur’an as scripture convert to Islam? The perhaps surprising answer, from a Qur’anic perspective, the answer is, no.
All of the prophets before Muhammad were, according to the Qur’an, muslim, as were those who believed them and followed them. The children of Israel enjoy a special status: “O children of Israel, remember my favor which I bestowed upon you, and that I favored you above all creation.” (Qur’an 2:47, 2:122).


Image of verse in Arabic
Image of verse in Arabic
The Qur’an discusses God’s favors and covenant with the Children of Israel in detail:

O children of Israel, indeed we delivered you from your enemy and made a covenant with you on the right side of the mountain, and we sent down for you manna and quails. (20:80)
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Indeed we gave the children of Israel the Book, and wisdom, and the prophecy, and we provided them with good things and favored them above all creation. (45:16)
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We made a covenant with the children of Israel: “Serve none except God. Be good to parents, relatives, orphans, and the poor. Speak kindly to people. Establish prayer and give alms.” Afterward, you turned away, except a few of you, and you were averse. (2:83)
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Their special status and covenant with God gives the children of Israel a great responsibility: the responsibility to uphold the covenant and abide by the law and guidance God has given them. So, what of the Qur’an’s criticism of Jews? An indication of the problem appears at the end of verse 2:83, above: Afterward, you turned away, except a few of you, and you were averse. Just as it provides details of God’s favors and covenant with the children of Israel, the Qur’an also discusses violations of that covenant.

Moses came to you with clear proofs, yet you took the calf [for worship] in his absence, and you turned wicked. (Qur’an 2:92)

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We made a covenant with you, that you not shed each others’ blood, nor evict each other from your homes. You agreed and bore witness. Yet it is you who are killing each other and evicting a group among you from their homes, supporting each other against them unlawfully and aggressively; and if they should come to you as captives you would ransom them—while evicting them was unlawful for you. Do you then believe in a part of the Book and disbelieve in the other? (Qur’an 2:84-85)

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Image of verse in Arabic
You have known those among you who violated the Sabbath, so we said to them: “Be despicable ape.” (Qur’an 2:65)
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It is in a similar context that the Qur’an uses the term “apes and swine,” in Qur’an 5:60, though in that verse, it is not said in reference to Jews. Here is 5:60 in its entirety:

Say: “Shall I inform you of something worse in the sight of God: those whom God has cursed and with whom he is angry, and he has made some of them apes and swine and servants of evil. These are in a worse position and more astray from the even path.”
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While some people may claim that the above refers specifically to the Jews, reading the verse in its context shows this is not necessarily accurate. This is clear from verses 5:57-58.

O you who believe, do not befriend those who make a mockery of your religion from among those who were given the Book before you or the disbelievers. Reverence God, if you are truly believers. When you call to prayer they make a mockery and a game of it. This is because they are a people who do not understand.
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As these verses show, the discussion is about those who make a mockery of religion, whether they are those who received previous scripture or those who are disbelievers. Of course, Jews are among those who received previous scripture, which is the basis of the claim that verse 5:60 refers to Jews. However, there is no Qur’anic basis for claiming that it refers exclusively or even primarily to Jews. The emphasis in the discussion is not the religion of, or lack thereof, of those with whom God was so angry that he cursed them and some of them apes, swine, and servants of evil. The emphasis is on the actions that may lead to such retribution from God—making a mockery of the religion of those who believe in God and in a scripture the mockers do not accept. Some of those mockers are among those who received previous scriptures:

Say, “O people of the scripture, do you resent us because we believe in God, and in what was sent down to us, and in what was sent down before us, and because most of you are not righteous?” (Qur’an 5:59)
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But does this mean all of those who received the previous scripture? Other verses of the Qur’an make it clear that it is not.

They are not all alike; among the people of the Book there is an upstanding community. They recite God’s revelations through the night, and they fall prostrate. They believe in God and the last day. They advocate good and forbid evil, and they hasten to do good works. These are among the righteous. Whatever good they do will not be denied. God
knows those who are reverent. (Qur’an 3:113-115).
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Surely those who believe, those who are Jews, the Sabians, and the Christians, whoever believes in God and the last day and does good, has nothing to fear nor will they grieve. (Qur’an 5:69)
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The above verses clearly extend the promise of God to all who believe and do good, whether they are believers in the Qur’an or not. Those who are criticized in the Qur’an are those who fail to uphold their covenant with God. Nothing in the Qur’an calls on the Jews to abandon the Torah in favor of the Qur’an. Quite the opposite. The Qur’an repeated declares that it comes to confirm the previous scripture, not to supplant it. Indeed, the Qur’an criticizes the Jews of Medina for coming to Muhammad for judgment when they had the Torah:

How do they make you a judge while they have the Torah in which is God’s law? Then they turn back after that—these are not believers. (Qur’an 5:43)
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The following verse further emphasizes the importance of the Torah, and the fact that those who follow it are submitting to God.

We sent down the Torah, in which there is guidance and light, by which the prophets who submitted judged the Jews, as did the rabbis and the priests, according to what they were required to observe of God’s Book, and thereunto were they witnesses. So do not fear people, but fear me, and do not sell my signs for minor gain. Whoever does not judge by what God has sent down are disbelievers. (Qur’an 5:44)
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Considering all of these verses, whether they are speaking to or about the children of Israel, or the Jews, or people of the Book, it is clear that Qur’anic criticism and condemnation is aimed not at the Jews as a people, but only at those among them who fail to reverence God and uphold their covenant with Him. Moreover, the Qur’an calls on Jews to adhere to what God has sent down in the Torah. So, if a Jew recognizes Muhammad as a messenger and the Qur’an as God’s Book, should follow the Torah. To do otherwise would be to disobey the Qur’an. The Qur’an also offers a clear remedy for religious bigotry and intolerance:

We have sent down the Book to you in truth, verifying what is before it of the Book and a standard of comparison for it; therefore judge between them by what God has sent down, and do not follow their low desires, turning away the truth that has come to you; for each of you we have ordained a law and a way of doing things. If God wished, He would have made you a single community, but he tests you according to what he has given you, so compete with each other in doing good. Your return is to God, and then He will let you know about that in which you differed. (Qur’an 5:48)
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Let us consider these words from the Qur’an with care and open our minds and our hearts to the possibility of accepting that God has given our communities different traditions and practices by which we serve Him, so that we can begin to compete with each other in doing good for His sake and our own.

In the article Islam and Judaism, Akbar S. Ahmed said

American incursions into Iraq mean that once again Muslims and Jews, and not only in the Middle East, will be on opposite sides. Yet when I, as a Muslim, contemplate the Jewish contribution to humanity in history, I feel awe and pride. Awe because of the scale of the contribution -some of the most influential shapers of our world have Jewish associations, like Marx, Freud and Einstein. And pride because I am aware that there are traditional and mythological connections between Islam and Judaism. Both go back to the core of belief - to the idea of one omnipotent, universal God.

The remarkable harmony and symbiosis recorded in history is often overlooked because of the current confrontation in the Middle East, and it is well for scholars and leaders to look back to the synthesis there once was in Spain. The Encyclopaedia Britannica notes the “almost boundless toleration” of the Muslims: “In Spain there came about a remarkable revival. The Jews knew no restrictions upon their activities… the Arab invasion brought salvation.” Muslim Spain, at its best, was a culture of religious and cultural tolerance, of libraries and literature and parks.

Several times, when Muslims took Jerusalem from Christians, one of their first acts was to allow Jews back to the city: Hazrat Umar, one of the greatest names of Islam, who reconquered Jerusalem, permitted the Jews to return to the city. I was not surprised to learn that a great Muslim hero, Salahuddin, had as a senior advisor Maimonides, the great Jewish scholar.

In sharp contrast is anti-Semitism in Europe, where Christians widely believed that Jews were Christ-killers; they had betrayed Christ and so had to be punished. Crusaders against the Muslims often began their journey in Europe by slaughtering Jews. Hitler’s Glaubenskrieg, the war against Jews, was the culmination, the inexorable conclusion, of a millennium of anti-Semitism. It has become the symbol of evil, and the Holocaust one of the darkest stains on human conscience.

Let us constantly remind ourselves that anti-Semitism is far from dead in Europe. As a Muslim, I note that whenever there is Islamophobia or hatred against Muslims, the signs of anti-Semitism are not far behind. We need to point out that the roots of prejudice among Muslims against the Jewish people are complex and originate from different sources. Prejudice can be religious, ie anti-Judaic; it can be racist, ie anti-Semitic; and it can be political, ie anti-Zionist. Prejudice may combine all three, but one prejudice does not automatically assume the other two. There may be those who oppose the political ideas of Zionism, but are not either anti-Judaic or anti-Semitic.

The success of Zionism in creating Israel complicates matters for Muslims. Loss of land for the Palestinians and the loss of Jerusalem are viewed with injustice and anger among Muslims. In the rhetoric of confrontation, many themselves blur the distinction between anti-Judaism, anti-Semitism and anti-Zionism. Such Muslims make the mistake they accuse others of making about themselves: seeing all Jews as monolithic and threatening.

It would be foolish, though, to deny that unless Muslims feel that genuine tolerance and compassion are shown to the Palestinian people, unless the right of Muslims to the holy city of Jerusalem is acknowledged, and unless media hostility is checked, there will be no end to the confrontation between religions and nations. The people of the Book - Muslims, Jews and Christians - need to find a way of living peacefully together. If we cannot think in terms of our common noble religions, let us think in terms of our common cultural heritage as representing the ideal.

Only a few months ago I had a grandson. He was named Ibrahim after the great Muslim prophet, who is also the great Jewish and Christian patriarch. Ibrahim inherits a legacy of several millennia. He will not be denied his heritage. I would like him to see the Jews and Christians as kin, People of the Book. I would also like him to visit and pray in Jerusalem, with peace in his heart. For me, from Adam in the mists of time to Ibrahim, my grandson, there is a span of human history which both incorporates the great religions of the world and provides hope and optimism for the future.

UPDATE 8/21/2012

After a series of ads were posted on transit systems in New York and San Francisco by AFDI/SIOA (Geller and Spencer’s hate groups) they were widely condemned as anti-Muslim and/or anti-Arab.

As I said in the article Pamela Geller & Robert Spencer announce new “Islamorealism” anti-Islam ad giving the entire background of this effort:

...  At this point, the only positive articles about the AFDI/SIOA ad campaign are from Geller, Spencer, and their allies in the Islamophobia industry.  Geller insists that the ads are not hateful, and that any criticism is unfounded, and a deliberate attempt to misrepresent her message.  However, it seems that Geller’s message is “misunderstood” as hateful by an awful lot of people. 

The Business Insider thought the term “savages” referred to Palestinians generally. Adam Chandler in the Jewish Tablet thought the ad could be read as anti-Israel.  The San Francisco Jewish Community Center thought the ad was anti-Muslim.  Ron Meier, the ADL NY Regional Director thought the ad was highly offensive and inflammatory, saying “We support the court’s conclusion that the ad is a form of protected speech under the First Amendment, yet we still strongly object to both the message and the messenger.  We believe these ads are highly offensive and inflammatory. Pro-Israel doesn’t mean anti-Muslim. It is possible to support Israel without engaging in bigoted anti-Muslim and anti-Arab stereotypes.”  Tfhe Huffington Post thought the ad was anti-Islam.  Alex Kane thought the ad was offensive and anti-Muslim. The San Francisco MTA who ran the ads thought the ad belittles, demeans, and disparages others.  Sydney Levy, Director of Advocacy for Jewish Voice for Peace thought the ad was very offensive.  Tim Redmond of the of the San Francisco Bay Guardian thought the ad was inexcusably offensive.  The Jewish Weekly thought the ads were bigoted.  Johnathan Vigliotti thought the ads were anti-Islamic.  The Times of Israel thought the ads were anti-Islamic. Greenburgh Town Supervisor Paul Feine thought the ads were offensive and inflammatory and encourage hatred.  Bradley Burston on Haaretz thought the ads represented “At root, the Geller and pro-Kahane brand of “support of Israel,” is little more than a slash and burn Arab–hate that, if left unanswered, will tear apart the Israel and the Jewish community from within. It blinds people to solutions. It convinces people that there are no solutions. It persuades people that there are no options apart from violence, both of word and deed.”  The SFMTA agreed to publish the ads as they are protected speech but posted a notice condemning the description of any group as “savages” and they will donate the money they receive from AFDI/SIOA to a public education campaign by the San Francisco Human Rights Commission ...

Geller and Spencer have called those who find their ads bigoted all sorts of names, with Geller focusing her wrath particularly on fellow Jews who have condemned the ads.

Today she published a furious article attacking Haaretz for an article they had published, Islamophobia, not Islam, will be the end of Israel by Bradley Burston.  She called Haaretz a “viciously anti-Israel newspaper”.  She called the author a “pox on our people”, and a “judenrat greasing the wheels of the genocidal machinery”.  She says “He would have volunteered for kapo-duty at the death camps.”.

She goes on again about “Islamic Jew hatred mandated by the Qur’an” and falsely claims that Muslim voices are not raised to condemn anti-Semitism or terrorism.  It is very sad to see an individual who is so blinded by hatred that she is unable to take a step back and consider even the possibility that the widespread criticism of her positions might have some validity.

UPDATE 10/3/2014

Pamela Geller continues to insist on the falsehood of “Jew hatred” taught by the Qur’an.  Rabbi Reuven Firestone has written a response No, Pamela Geller, the Qur’an Is Not Anti-Semitic published in the Jewish Forward.  In that article he says:

Soon you will see ads, courtesy of Pamela Geller, in the New York City subway system that state, “Islamic Jew-Hatred: It’s in the Qur’an.”

Is she right?

It’s easy to understand why many Jews might think so. Anti-Semitism has become a frightening force in much of the Muslim world, and a recent Anti-Defamation League study has shown that anti-Semitism is more common in Muslim majority countries than in any other region identified by religion, culture or geography. Muslims need to address this problem for many reasons, not least of which is that anti-Semitism reflects deep ignorance and a willingness to be manipulated by simplistic propaganda that is harmful to Muslims as well as Jews.
But anti-Semitism is not found in the Qur’an.

This may be difficult to fathom given the recent heated public discussion. Some people cite what appear to be obviously angry and seemingly hateful negative references to Jews in the Qur’an. Others argue that these verses are taken out of context. They cite counter-verses from the same Qur’an that appear to respect Jews and even refer to Jews using the same positive language reserved for followers of Muhammad.

So what’s the real story? As usual, the issue is not so simple, and many on both sides of the debate do us all a disservice with their hyperbole and naïve arguments.
Yes, the Qur’an contains verses that refer negatively to Jews. In order to understand these verses, we must read them both in relation to the fullness of the scripture in which they are located (synchronically), and also in relation to how other scriptures treat non-believers (diachronically).

Let’s start with the synchronic reading. Negative references to Jews in the Qur’an occur in relation to negative references to other communities, all of which opposed the emergence of the new Arabian prophet and his revelation. The Jewish communities of Arabia, like the Christian, Zoroastrian and native polytheist communities, did not accept the prophetic status of Muhammad. A few individual Jews and Christians joined his movement, but when they did they voted themselves out of their native religious communities.

This is a natural occurrence. No established religion is willing to discard the canon of its own scripture in order to accept a new prophet with a new revelation. Islam fits into this pattern as well, since it refuses to accept the prophetic status of new divine messengers who emerged out of its own tradition, such as the prophets of the Baha’i faith or the Ahmadiyya.

The Jews of Arabia were greatly respected and influential in Arabia during Muhammad’s lifetime. Because of their status, their refusal as a community to acknowledge his prophethood was a major impediment to the new movement and was condemned by the Qur’an as obstinacy, and hard-headedness. The Qur’an criticizes local Jews, for example, when it states, “Many of the People of the Book would like to turn you back to unbelievers after your having believed, because of envy on their part after the truth has become clear to them” (Q.2:109).

Established religions are never welcoming to new religions, and the disappointment, resentment and anger of newly emerging religions toward established religions that refuse to embrace them is found in all monotheistic scriptures. Many are familiar with the negative references to Jews in parts of the New Testament such as Matthew 23 and John 8. As in the Qur’an, these texts reflect the shock and resentment of those believing in a new redemptive and charismatic leader. They simply could not understand why members of established religions would refuse to join their program.
Negative references to Jews in both scriptures reflect reactive anger and zealous resentment. They do not represent a program to vilify, demonize or scapegoat Jews.

Jews are naturally sensitive to negative references to Jews in other scriptures, but are usually unaware of the same phenomenon of othering in their own scripture. The Hebrew Bible is full of reactive anger and zealous resentment toward competing religious communities. Canaanites, Egyptians and other members of established religious peoples are depicted repeatedly in the Hebrew Bible as spiteful, wicked and mortal enemies of ancient Israel. But most of those portrayed as evil opponents were simply members of established religions who felt threatened by Israelite successes in conquest and expansion. Like the Jews and Christians of Arabia, they opposed the emergence of a new, competitive religious community. The Israelite claims to being God’s chosen people with an exclusive relationship with the one God of the universe (who happened to be called the God of Israel!) could only have added to the tension.

These are all cases of the natural tension that occurs with the birth of new religions. Established religions resent and oppose them — just think of “cults” as new religions in order to understand the mindset. Like the Hebrew Bible and New Testament, the Qur’an includes material that reflects this frustration. It does not express anti-Semitism, Jew-hatred or racism.

Anti-Semitism is caused by different forces, which scapegoat Jews by manipulating people through deceitful deflection of criticism onto Jews. Those who engage in the deception use anything they can to further their aims, including scripture. Negative scriptural references to non-believers exist in all scriptures, and they are sometimes cited and manipulated by hateful people to encourage violence and even slaughter of the religious other. But it’s important for Jews to understand that anti-Semitism is no more basic to Islam than hatred of all non-Jews is basic to Judaism, an old anti-Semitic screed that was often claimed by citing scriptural citations from the Hebrew Bible.

Many writings single out and disparage particular communities, and any kind of “othering” is problematic. We need to be able to distinguish between normal even if problematic cases, and those that are truly hateful and absolutely unacceptable cases of racism, anti-Semitism or Islamophobia. Reacting to every negative reference to Jews as anti-Semitic is unwise, simplistic and dangerous. Don’t be fooled by frightened people into the naïve and simplistic conclusion that any negative reference to Jews is anti-Semitism.

UPDATE 1/10/2015

Pamela Geller has again used a tragedy to promote her hateful views.  She published Faces of the Jews Slaughtered By Devout Muslims in Paris Kosher Market.  She manages to work in lots of false stereotypes and claims.  Of course she doesn’t mention the two Muslims killed by these criminals in the first attack on the Charlie Hebdo office, or the Muslim from Mali who saved 15 people in that same kosher market by hiding them in a freezer.  As Haaretz reported Muslim employee saved lives in attack on Paris kosher supermarket: “When Islamist gunman stormed into supermarket, Lassana Bathily let customers into store’s basement freezer, told them to stay in while he kept lookout.”  The hatred of extremists on all sides needs to be marginalized.

UPDATE 5/4/2015

More of Geller’s hateful ads were to appear on NYC subways ‘Killing Jews is Worship’ posters will soon appear on NYC subways and buses.  After all the controversy and legal battles over this and other hateful ads produced by Geller and Spencer’s AFDI, MTA votes to ban all political ads. ”...  New York follows in the footsteps of cities including Los Angeles, Chicago and Philadelphia, which already have banned political ads on public transit…”

It is ironic that Geller who hides hate speech under the claim of “defending freedom of speech” is personally responsible for reducing the amount of free speech in the public square.  This sort of confusion about the meaning of free speech is not surprising since previously Pamela Geller Defended Free Speech By Calling for Censorship, clearly Pamela Geller Does Not Understand Freedom of Speech.

Perhaps Pamela Geller should read my article Freedom of speech does not include freedom from condemnation of that speech to gain a better understanding of this Constitutional freedom that we all share as citizens of this great country.

As I said in that article:  What all of these folks don’t seem to understand is that freedom of speech does not come with freedom from condemnation of that speech, and condemnation of hate speech does not equal an attempt to take away the freedom of speech from those making such hateful speech.  Condemnation is NOT implementing “a de facto blasphemy law dealing with Islam in the United States.”

It is perfectly reasonable to both disagree with, or even condemn the speech of another, and at the same time defend their right to engage in such speech.  It is perfectly reasonable to ask an individual to consider the possible implications of hate speech.  It is perfectly reasonable to defend freedom of speech, and yet make a judgement that some speech is not socially acceptable, even though it is legal.  It is also perfectly reasonable to carry out peaceful protests against hateful speech.  Any intimidation or violence carried out in response to speech is immoral, and illegal and also deserves condemnation and prosecution.



A Day of Deep Sorrow: An Imam’s Reflections on Yom Hashoah, Imam Abdullah Antepli

A Jewish Voice Left Silent: Trying to Articulate “The Levantine Option”, David Shasha

A New Role for Religion in the Middle East, Marc Gopin

A Pax on Both Their Houses - Interfaith Peace Effort Ignored By Mainstream Media, Sheila Musaji

A Pax on both our houses campaign still necessary, Rabbi Arthur Waskow 

A Small Step Toward Interfaith Dialogue, Akbar S. Ahmed,

A Tsunami of Confusion - Antisemitism and the Arab-Israeli conflict, Tony Klug

Khaled Abdelwahab - Wiesenthal Center honors one of Shoah’s righteous Arabs - Tunisian Muslim who saved Jews during WWII

After Jews and Arabs: Finding Our Common Humanity under the Rubble of Violence, David Shasha

Albanian Muslims risk their own lives to save Jews from Nazis during World War II

Alliances between Muslims and Jews and a different discourse in the future by Fiyaz Mughal

American Jews and Muslims Work Together: Concrete Projects Help Overcome Differences on Israel

Among the Righteous: Lost Stories from the Holocaust’s Long Reach into Arab Lands, by Robert Satloff - Photo book:
- Documentary:

An American Jew to ISNA, Jacob Bender

Anti-semitism Is a Racism Totally Contrary to Islam, Harun Yahya

The Arabs and Nazi Germany: Collaborators and Antagonists, Sonja Hegasy

Assessing the Myths of Interfaith Dialogue, David Shasha


Book Review: Dignity of Difference: How To Avoid The Clash of Civilizations (Rabbi Jonathan Sacks), David Shasha

Book Review:  Islam and Global Dialogue: Religious Pluralism and the Pursuit of Peace, Chris Hewer

Book Review:  Power in the Portrayal: Representations of Jews and Muslims in 11th & 12 Century Spain (Ross Brann), David Shasha

Book Review:  Besa Muslims Who Saved Jews in World War II: the Photographs of Norman H. Gershman

Book Review:  Turkey and The Holocaust:Turkey’s Role in Rescuing Turkish and European Jewry from Nazi Persecution, 1933-1945, Irem Guney

Book Review:  Turkey and the Holocaust: Turkey’s Role in Rescuing Turkish and European Jewry From Nazi Persecution, 1933-1945, Stanford Shaw

Britain’s Muslim soldiers

British Muslims, Europe and the Holocaust, Yahya Birt

Christian Right and `Islamo-Facism`, by Dan Jennejohn

Collaborators and Antagonists, Sonja Hegasy

Critical Analysis and the Alleged Massacre of the Jews in Madina, Dr. Robert D. Crane {discusses in depth the Story of Banu Qurayza and the Jews of Medina)

Dancing or Denouncing in the World-Wide Earthquake — Muslims, Christians, Jews , Rabbi Arthur Waskow

Danger lurks in use of term ‘Islamofascism’

Documentary Review: Uncovering the Obsessions of “Obsession”, David Shasha

The Disgrace of Holocaust Denial, Hasan Zillur Rahim

“Fascist-Islamophobia”: A Case Study in Totalitarian Demonization - 5 parts, Dr. Robert Dickson Crane

Fascists? Look who’s talking, By Jim Lobe

Fighting Words: The Abuse of Islam in Political Rhetoric, L. Ali Khan

For God and Our Father Abraham: Towards a More Inclusive Witness for Jews, Christians, and Muslims, D. Jason Berggren

The forgotten heroes, Muslim soldiers in WWI and WWII

“Free Men” Film Tribute to Paris Muslims who saved Jews

“God’s House,” a documentary that chronicles the mission of photographer Norman H. Gershman to bring to light the story of Muslims who saved Jews during World War II

Holocaust Denial Undermines Islam, Shaykh Hamza Yusuf

Holocaust truth is told on Muslim soil,  Michael Berenbaum

Holocaust’s untold heroes: Their story is rarely told, but Albanian Muslims took in fleeing Jews during World War II, saving thousands of lives, SHAHZADA IRFAN

Holocaust exhibit in Israel remembers Muslim “righteous gentiles”

David Horowitz’ Islamo-Fascism Awareness Week, An Idea Whose Time Has Passed, Sheila Musaji

Hostilities Escalate In a War Of Words

How the right played the fascism card against Islam, Albert Scardino,3604,1405605,00.html

Interfaith Dialogue a Moral Duty to Finding Common Ground, Louay Safi

Interfaith dialogue:  Collection of articles on interfaith dialogue issues

Interview with Norman Gershman: The Muslims who saved Jews

Is it a war with Islamic terrorists?

Is the Christian Right a Fascist Movement?, John W. Whitehead

Is There Anti-Semitism in The Qur’an?, Muzammil H. Siddiqi, Ph.D.

Islam and Fascism? What Next?, Dr. S. Khurshid

Islamic Fascists?  Deceptive Labels & Propaganda are Counterproductive, Sheila Musaji

Islamic Fascism The New Hysteria,  Alan Maass

Islamic Fascism the Enemy, Not Terror, Says Santorum

Islamic Fascism: The Propaganda of Our Times, by Paul R. Dunn

Islamic Fascisms?, By ISMAEL HOSSEIN-ZADEH

Islamic fascist terminology causing racist reaction, Dave Johnson

Islam and Judaism, Akbar S. Ahmed

Islam and the Charge of Anti-Semitism, Asma Afsaruddin

Islamo-Fascism Awareness Week III - “Annual” 6 month event bombs again, Sheila Musaji

Islamofascism’s ill political wind,  James Carroll

The Islamo-Fascist Rationale for Abandoning Liberty, by Jacob G. Hornberger

Islamophobia Real or Imagined article collection

Jewish-Muslim Dialogue and the Value of Peace, Jacob Bender

Jewish-Muslim dialogue deeper than it seems, Aaron Greenblatt

Jews and Muslims: Reflections on a common heritage, El Hasan bin Talal

Jews, Christians, & Muslims: From A Conflicting Past To A Future of Tolerance, Mushfiqur Rahman

Jews are not apes and pigs, Aziz Poonawalla

Jews in the Qur’an: An Introduction, Aisha Y. Musa, Ph.D.

Judeo-Christo-Fascism Awareness Week Comes to American Campuses!, Rabbi Arthur Waskow

The Land of Canaan should be a Place of Peace and Reconciliation for all True Religions, Harun Yahya

The Makkah Conference on Inter-Faith Dialogue: Stirrings of a New Beginning?, Yoginder Sikand

The Muslim Expulsion from Spain:  An Early Example of Religious and Ethnic Cleansing, Roger Boase

Muslim savior of holocaust Jews

Muslims Who Saved Jews During the Holocaust, Rebecca Schischa

Muslims and Anti-Semitism, Tariq Ramadan

Muslims and Jews: common ground, Robert Eisen

Muslims and Jews: Let us coexist, Azzam Tamimi

Muslims and Jews: a historical perspective that reveals surprises, Abdul Malik Mujahid

Muslims are reaching out. We should reach back, Rabbi Dr. Alan Brill

Muslims Who Fought Against the ‘Real’ Fascists & Nazis, Sheila Musaji

On Holocaust exploiters, deniers, and heroes, Mas’ood Cajee

The Other Anti-Semitism: The image of Islam in American pop culture, James J. Zogby

The Peace of Abraham, Hagar, & Sarah: Sharing Sacred Seasons This Fall, Rabbi Arthur Waskow

The Possibility of Jewish-Palestinian Dialogue, Dr. Tony Klug

Religio-Fascists in Our Midst (4 parts), Farish A. Noor

RELIGIOUS HEROISM - THE REAL JIHAD - article collection, collected by Sheila Musaji

Resources for Responding to Islamo-Fascism Awareness Week, Sheila Musaji

Remembrance Day: Muslim soldiers in Western Cemeteries with photographs

Responses to Misinterpretations, Mistranslations, or False Claims Made About the Qur’an

Restoring the Andalusian-Arabic Tradition in Western Civilization: An Homage to Maria Rosa Menocal, David Shasha

Righteous Among the Nations: Muslims Who Saved Jews from Holocaust, Tim Townsend

Saying ‘Islamic Fascists’ May Defeat Bush’s Purpose, Parvez Ahmed

So, what did the Muslims do for the Jews?, David J Wasserstein

“So That You May Know One Another”: The Role of People of Faith in the 21st Century, Dr. Hesham A. Hassaballa

Strengthening Muslim-Jewish ties in the face of evil

“Terrorism” & “Islamo-Fascism” Propaganda Campaigns

That Muslims and Jews Coexist Is Not an Option - It Is An Imperative, Dr. Abdul Cader Asmal

The tragedy of monotheism, Rabia Terri Harris 

Turkey Served As Safe Haven For Jews During The Holocaust, Margie Burns

This is how Fascism comes: Reflections on the cost of silence, Tim Wise

Turning Jews into Muslims: The Untold Saga of the Muselmänner, S. Parvez Manzoor

US primaries anti-Islam terminology due to Muslims’ inaction, absence

War and Words, by Hendrik Hertzberg

The War of Jesus and Allah, By Neal AbuNab

‘War on Terror’ Rhetoric Sounds Like War on Islam, Parvez Ahmed

Welcome and Unwelcome Truths Between Jews, Christians and Muslims by the Sternberg Centre JCM Dialogue Group 

What exactly is fascism?

What is Islamofascism?, Jack Hunter

When Language Grows Darker and Darker, Joan Chittister

When Muslims Saved Jews, Eboo Patel

Where the anti-Muslim path leads, Anya Cordell

Whitehall draws up new rules on language of terror,,2251965,00.html

Who is the Fascist Here?, Charles Evans

Wrong War, Wrong Word