Muslim Women Leading Prayer

INTRODUCTION

Assessing the Gender Insurgency of Professor Amina Wadud:  Strategic, Tactical, and Legal Perspectives by Robert D. Crane

  On March 18th, 2005, Professor Amina Wadud launched what might be seen as the first intifada in a widespread gender insurgency by serving with much public fanfare as the imamah in a mixed-gender jumu’a salah.  This triggered a flurry of interesting fatwas from every trend of thought and seemingly every country on earth.  Her action may produce an entire literature not only about its legal validity but about the political wisdom of her chosen strategy of “shock and awe.”

  From a strategic perspective one must ask whether it is counter-productive to push this issue when the broader issue of women’s oppression should be our focus.  There are so many worse aspects of gender apartheid than women not leading men in prayer.

    Is Professor Wadud committing a major strategic error by focusing on a peripheral issue like women leading mixed-gender public prayers.  This is the kind of issue that the extremists in NOW (the National Organization of Women) would love to use in attacking Muslim male chauvinism as an opening to attack Islam as a religion.  Secular fundamentalist feminism, known as woman’s liberation, can easily be clothed in religious terms and is growing among Muslim Americans.  This is part of the American cultural baggage that has been brought into the American Muslim umma by social revolutionary converts and by alienated foreign-born Muslim expats. 

  By adopting the standards of modern Western culture (or lack of culture) Sister Amina Wadud is shifting the burden of proof from the West to the East in defining the nature of dignity and justice.  She thereby is buying into the Orientalist insistence that the base case for evaluating Islamic law is Western culture, when she should be comparing Western law with Islamic law as the base case.  She should shift the burden of proof onto the secular fundamentalists by showing how deficient Western positivist legal jurisprudence is compared to the sophisticated normative legal system and code of human responsibilities and rights known as the maqasid al shari’ah. 

  The fact that Muslims have observed this code of human rights primarily in the breech for hundreds of years reflects poorly not on Islam but on Muslims.  Professor Wadud points this out, but she appeals to the Western obsession with freedom rather than to the emphasis of all the world religions and of America’s founders (fathers and mothers) on justice, without which freedom means nothing.  She is caught in the wrong paradigm.

  The tactical blunder of Sister Amina in launching this first intifada of postmodern gender insurgency is to set Muslims up for attack by the Muslim-bashers who can use this to claim that Muslims hate freedom.

  Furthermore, these strategic and tactical blunders may generate what in current parlance is called blowback, as illustrated by the failure so far of the Neo-Con strategy to stamp out chaos in the world.  Since Professor Wadud can’t win on this issue, her intifada will serve as grist not only for those who bash Islam but for those troglodite Muslims who oppose gender equity, i.e., human dignity and rights for women (part of the maqasid known as haqq al karama).  Extremism elicits counter extremism, just as terrorism produces much more terroristic counter-terrorism.  Sister Amina’s confrontational approach mirrors the paradigm of the clash of civilizations, known as the West versus the Rest, which, in turn, gives rise to the counter-paradigm of Al Qa’ida known as the East versus the Beast.

  Even from the legal perspective, Sister Amina Wadud’s counter-cultural crusade is at best problematic.  She tries to defend it in terms of Islamic law simply because her detractors cast it in terms of Qur’anic exegesis, hadith interpretation, and legal commentary.  Many religious people like to reduce complex issues to a simple question of good or bad and right or wrong.  Since the shari’ah or “Islamic law” is so important for Muslims, it is perhaps natural that most Muslims like to label everything as either legal or illegal. 

  Traditionalist thought in all religions teaches the wisdom of respecting the nuances of competing perspectives on what is good.  These cannot be fitted into a narrow legal framework, unless this framework is based on justice, which emphasizes the purpose of the specific legal injunctions.  This is why the maqasid are so important. 

  Furthermore, many Muslims seem to forget that in the shari’ah, unlike in Western law, there is a spectrum of categories from required (wajib) and good (halal) all the way to haram or forbidden.  Most acts fit into categories in between, namely, mandub or desirable and makruh or undesirable, with a large middle category that depends entirely on intention.  The same applies to bid’a.  Not all innovation is bad.  Some is desirable, namely, bida’ hasana, and some is undesirable or even haram.

  The differences in approach may ultimately depend on what aspect of the ‘usul al fiqh one uses.  Adopting the maqasid or universal purposes and essentials of the shari’ah as the starting point for analysis is merely the first step, though the most important one.  The next is to decide what analytical technique one wants to use.  Self-styled liberals, like Professor Muqtedar Khan, may prefer istihsan, which is the most liberal form of jurisprudence approved in the ‘usul al fiqh, based on what the faqih thinks is good or hasan.  Self-styled conservatives, like myself, prefer the istislah, which requires derivation from the Qur’an and Sunnah.  Proceeding from these two approaches, equally competent jurists may end up on opposite sides of important issues.

  Islamic jurists, of course, will always be aware of the difference between applying rational thought to the muamalat or socio-economic and socio-political issues of everyday life and applying such thought to the ibadat or rules of Muslim worship.  The maqasid are ideally suited as a normative framework for analyzing the muamalat, whereas the ibadat, as well as most family law (especially marriage, divorce, and inheritance), are revealed and are not equally subject to reasoned debate for application by and to Muslims. 

  For purposes of teaching courses on the shari’ah, as well as on comparative legal systems and on human rights, I would think that Amina Wadud’s unprecedented intifada designed to legitimize women leading the jumu’a salat should be a perfect case study.  Although I personally think that she is violating the fundamental Islamic principle of mizan or balance, the extreme case she has chosen to raise fundamental issues of human responsibilities and rights should challenge students to approach fourteen hundred years of Islamic scholarship with an open mind. 

  This open-mindedness in the search for knowledge, which is part of the maqsud of the maqasid known as haqq al ‘ilm, is the current task of Muslims in fulfilling the third jihad, the only one mentioned specifically in the Qur’an, namely, the jihad al kabir.  This is the intellectual jihad, which assumes the first two taught by the Prophet Muhammad, salla Allahu ‘alayhi wa salam, the jihad al akbar and the jihad al saghrir.  The jihad al akbar for self purification is fard ‘ain or the individual responsibility of every person.  The jihad al saghrir or use of force within the constraints of a just war doctrine to defend human rights for oneself and others is both an individual responsibility and a group responsibility known as fard kifaya.  The third jihad, the intellectual jihad, in the complexities of the modern era increasingly requires the joint ijtihad of group effort. 

  Each person should educate oneself in order to use individual ijtihad as guidance for one’s own life, just as one should respect personal inspiration or ilham from Allah, but neither this individual ijtihad nor this personal inspiration is applicable to other people, and one certainly should not try to impose it on them.  Group ijtihad evolves to meet the changing needs of the era and of different cultures.  It is an incremental and evolutionary process. 

  Of course, there is the old saw that revolution never pays, except when it does. 


SOME ARTICLES ON THE TOPIC:

A Prayer Toward Equality, Mona Eltahawy http://www.muslimwakeup.com/main/archives/2005/03/a_prayer_toward.php#more

A Sacred Conversation, Hesham Hessaballa http://www.altmuslim.com/opinion_comments.php?id=1414_0_25_0_C

A Statement From the Organizers of the March 18th Event http://www.muslimwakeup.com/main/archives/2005/03/a_statement_fro_1.php#more 

A Sweet Way to Distort the Message http://images.trafficmp.com/tmpad/content/mediastorm/royalwedding/0405/720x300charles_2005479224.htm 

A Woman’s Reflection on Leading Prayer, Yasmin Mogahed http://usa.mediamonitors.net/content/view/full/13883/

American Islam http://www.turkishweekly.net/news.php?id=7385

Announcement of March 18th Friday Prayer Led by Amina Wadud http://www.muslimwakeup.com/events/archives/2005/03/friday_prayer_l.php 

Case of the Woman Imam, Yamin Zakaria http://www.jihadunspun.com/intheatre_internal.php?article=102067&list=/home.php

Dispute Over Women Imams, Anwer Iqbal http://www.newkerala.com/news-daily/news/features.php?action=fullnews&id=89119  and http://expressnewsline.com/phpnews/news.php?action=fullnews&showcomments=1&id=681

Do Female Prayer Protests Miss the Point, Dr. Aslam Abdullah http://www.altmuslim.com/opinion_more.php?id=1407_0_25_0_M 

Female Led Prayer in the Arab Press http://www.muslimwakeup.com/blog/archives/2005/03/the_femaleled_p.php 

Female Led U.S. Service Irks Muslims in Mideast http://www.cbc.ca/cp/world/050319/w031924.html

Female Imam Sparks Global Controversy, Shahed Amanullah http://www.altmuslim.com/perm.php?id=1417_0_26_0_C

Feminism and the Struggle Against Globalization, Farish A. Noor http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2005apr_comments.php?id=658_0_38_30_C

First Generation of Female Imams Emerges in West China http://english.people.com.cn/200308/24/eng20030824_122957.shtml

First Female Imam for Ningxia http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/en/doc/2003-08/25/content_257969.htm

Friday Prayers Led By Women, Aslam Abdullah http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2005apr_comments.php?id=656_0_38_30_C

From rebels to leaders: The Fitna of Women Leading Men in Prayers, by Abid Ullah Jan http://usa.mediamonitors.net/content/view/full/13702/ 

Frontal Assault http://www.cairomagazine.com/?module=displaystory&story_id=737&format=html

Historic Moment for Islam http://www.newsday.com/news/nationworld/world/ny-nyisla104170606mar10,0,7421771.story?coll=ny-worldnews-headlines 

Inspired By a Woman Leading Prayers, Pamela Taylor http://www.indystar.com/articles/9/232023-5259-021.html

Interview With Dr. Amina Wadud on Controversy http://www.naseeb.com/naseebvibes/prose-detail.php?aid=3631  and http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/muslims/interviews/wadud.html

Islamic Woman Sparks Controversy By Leading Prayer http://www.kansascity.com/mld/kansascity/news/nation/11174658.htm

Jihadist Message Board Calls for Fatwa For the Death of Amina Wadud http://www.siteinstitute.org/bin/articles.cgi?ID=publications28805&Category=publications&Subcategory=0

Kyrgyzstan: Girl Pursues A Difficult Dream—Becoming An Imam http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2005/3/E2597C9B-6D1E-4354-94CE-B5785B62C910.html

Leading Ladies, Ejaz Haider http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_27-3-2005_pg3_5

Making History at the Friday Prayer, Mona Eltahawy http://www.iht.com/articles/2005/03/28/opinion/edeltahawy.html

Middle East and Women’s Status http://newsfromrussia.com/world/2005/03/20/58722.html

Mideast Muslims Aghast At Mixed Gender Service in NY http://www.fortwayne.com/mld/journalgazette/news/nation/11186328.htm

Mideast Muslims Outraged http://www.cbc.ca/cp/world/050319/w031924.html 

Mideast Muslims See Conspiracy http://www.cbc.ca/cp/world/050319/w031924.html

Mixed Islamic Prayer, Carole Eisenberg http://www.newsday.com/news/local/newyork/nyc-islam0312,0,5708609.story?coll=ny-nynews-headlines

Mixed Islamic Prayer in New York http://www.kashar.net/compleat.asp?id=1421 

Much Ado About Nothing http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/5983_1302679,004300140003.htm

Muslim Professor Plans to Keep Teaching at VCU http://www.timesdispatch.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=RTD%2FMGArticle%2FRTD_BasicArticle&c=MGArticle&cid=1031781799277&path=!news&s=1045855934842

Muslim Woman Leads Prayer Service in NYC http://www.mlive.com/newsflash/national/index.ssf?/base/national-41/1111191316301070.xml&storylist=national

Muslim Woman Sparks Controversy By Leading Prayers http://www.kansascity.com/mld/kansascity/news/nation/11174550.htm 

Muslim Woman’s Prayer Causes Stir http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/03/18/national/main681609.shtml

Muslim Women Are Finally Demanding Equality, Kamal Nawash http://www.americandaily.com/article/7119

Muslim Women Can Lead Some Prayers Scholars Say http://www.islam-online.net/English/News/2005-03/12/article06.shtml

Muslim Women Leading Friday Prayer, Mirza Baig http://www.aljazeerah.info/Opinion%20editorials/2005%20Opinion%20Editorials/March/25%20o/Muslim%20Women%20Leading%20the%20Friday%20Prayer%20By%20Mirza%20A.%20Beg.htm

Muslims Cry ‘Blasphemy’ As a Woman Leads Prayers http://www.theage.com.au/news/World/Muslims-cry-blasphemyas-a-woman-leads-prayers/2005/03/19/1111086059079.html?oneclick=true

Muslims Howl at Woman Led Service http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/03/19/world/main681775.shtml

Muslims Split Over Gender Role http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0328/p11s01-wogi.html

Muslims Told to Focus on Ethics, Not Symbols http://www.thejakartapost.com/detailheadlines.asp?fileid=20050324.A08&irec=7

Nasr Ahmed Said Says Wadud’s Action Important for Muslim Women in America http://www.timesdispatch.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=RTD%2FMGArticle%2FRTD_BasicArticle&c=MGArticle&cid=1031781927615&path=!news&s=1045855934842 

No, We Don’t Have More Important Issues: In Support of Women-Led Prayer
By Sarah Eltantawi http://www.muslimwakeup.com/main/archives/2005/03/no_we_dont_have.php#more

Not Heroic Enough?, Amin Tais http://www.muslimwakeup.com/main/archives/2005/03/not_heroic_enou.php#more 

Outrage As Woman Leads Friday Prayers http://www.gulf-daily-news.com/Story.asp?Article=107166&Sn=WORL&IssueID=27365

Paving the Way for a Muslim Holocaust, Abid Ullah Jan http://usa.mediamonitors.net/content/view/full/13843/

Pioneering Muslim Women and Amina Wadud’s Initiative http://www.aljazeerah.info/Opinion%20editorials/2005%20Opinion%20Editorials/March/24%20o/Pioneer%20Muslim%20Women%20and%20the%20Amina%20Waduds%20Initiative%20By%20Ali%20AlHail.htm

Political Participation of Women in Society, Muslim Womens League http://www.forf.org/TRADITIONS_and_MOVEMENTS/ISLAM/Women_Politics.htm

Power of Prayer http://www.registerguard.com/news/2005/03/31/ed.edit.imam.0331.html

Prayer Leader Condemned http://www.canoe.ca/NewsStand/EdmontonSun/News/2005/03/20/967002-sun.html

Prayers and Protest http://www.newsday.com/news/printedition/newyork/nyc-nyisla194182527mar19,0,5878875.story?coll=nyc-nynews-print

Prayers Stir Debate http://www.bergen.com/page.php?qstr=eXJpcnk3ZjczN2Y3dnFlZUVFeXk2MDYmZmdiZWw3Zjd2cWVlRUV5eTY2NjgxODMmeXJpcnk3ZjcxN2Y3dnFlZUVFeXky

Real Debate on the Status of Women, Aslam Abdullah http://www.islamicity.com/articles/Articles.asp?ref=IC0503-2643

Response to Woman Led Friday Prayer http://www.mwlusa.org/responses/womanledprayer.htm 

Safety of Professor Wadud Discussed by Virginia Commonwealth University http://www.timesdispatch.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=RTD%2FMGArticle%2FRTD_BasicArticle&c=MGArticle&cid=1031781780964&path=!news&s=1045855934842

Scholars Urge Debate on Women’s Role in Prayer http://www.thejakartapost.com/detailheadlines.asp?fileid=20050323.A07&irec=6

Securing the Campus http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2005/03/28/muslim

Security Boosted for Islamic Activist http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,1280,-4894643,00.html

Security Concerns for Amina Wadud http://wireservice.wired.com/wired/story.asp?section=Breaking&storyId=1010137&tw=wn_wire_story

Security Level Raised at VCU http://www.azcentral.com/news/articles/0327muslim27.html

Shock and Awe in the First Intifada of American Gender Insurgency: Paradigmatic, Strategic, and Legal Perspectives, By Dr. Robert D. Crane http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2005apr_comments.php?id=179_0_38_30_C

Showdown With Satan, Jawad Ali http://www.muslimwakeup.com/main/archives/2005/03/showdown_with_s.php#more

Standing By My Sister, Hesham Hassaballa http://www.altmuslim.com/opinion_comments.php?id=1408_0_25_0_C 

Step Toward Equality in Islam http://www.theday.com/eng/web/news/re.aspx?re=EECE1A42-E8FA-4742-A45B-B9F9B02D1C60

Understanding Amina Wadud and the PMU, Ahmed Rehab http://usa.mediamonitors.net/content/view/full/13733/ 

University Protects Professor http://news.newkerala.com/world-news/?action=fullnews&id=90535

VCU Professor Threatened http://www.wric.com/Global/story.asp?S=3146124&nav=0Rcx3aIN

Western Muslims Are Dying to Fit In, Muhammad Elmasry http://usa.mediamonitors.net/content/view/full/13724/

What A Damn Shame, Hesham Hassaballa http://www.muslimwakeup.com/main/archives/2005/03/what_a_damn_sha.php#more

What Would the Prophet Do: the Islamic Basis for Female Led Prayer, Nevin Reda http://www.muslimwakeup.com/main/archives/2005/03/women_imamat.php

Will Muslim Women Defeat Tradition, Anwer Iqbal http://www.washtimes.com/upi-breaking/20050320-022907-6032r.htm

With Prayer A Call for Equality http://www.philly.com/mld/inquirer/news/nation/11175952.htm

Woman Leads Friday Prayer in NYC http://www.arabnews.com/?page=4§ion=0&article=60658&d=19&m=3&y=2005

Woman Leads Muslim Prayer Service http://news.scotsman.com/latest.cfm?id=4281904 

Woman Leads Prayer Despite Criticism http://www.freep.com/news/statewire/sw113202_20050318.htm

Woman Leads Prayer Sparking Worldwide Controversy http://www.teamamberalert.net/Delaware/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=102

Woman Led Friday Service Despite Illegitimacy http://www.moroccotimes.com/paper/article.asp?idr=6&id=4908

Woman Led Prayer Sparks Controversy http://www.stuff.co.nz/stuff/0,2106,3222788a12,00.html 

Woman Led Prayer - Views From Europe, Amine Tais http://www.muslimwakeup.com/main/archives/2005/04/the_womanled_pr.php#more

Woman Officiates at Muslim Wedding, Kecia Ali http://www.naseeb.com/naseebvibes/prose-detail.php?aid=3393

Women and the Masjid Between Two Extremes, Louay Safi http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2005apr_comments.php?id=660_0_38_30_C

Women As Imams http://www.crescentlife.com/thisthat/feminist%20muslims/women_as_imam.htm 

Women Imams and Gender Justice, Nazry Bahrawi http://www.todayonline.com/articles/42374.asp

Women Leading Prayers, Halima Klausen http://www.qantara.de/webcom/show_article.php/_c-307/_nr-8/_p-1/i.html 

Woman Led Friday Prayer Sparks Furor in U.S. http://www.islam-online.net/English/News/2005-03/19/article06.shtml

Women Leading Friday Prayers: Why Am I Silent, M.A. Muqtedar Khan http://www.ijtihad.org/Wadud.htm  Response to Muqtedar Khan’s Article http://www.muslimwakeup.com/blog/archives/2005/03/poultry_in_moti.php


OTHER WOMEN PLAN TO ALSO LEAD MIXED GENDER PRAYERS

Another Woman (Asra Nomani) to Lead Muslim Prayers http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_25-3-2005_pg7_9 and http://www.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=43832

Asra Nomani Leads Prayers at Brandeis University http://images.trafficmp.com/tmpad/content/ZentropyPartners/HRB/U_06_720x300_G_35K_L0.html


WE ARE SEEING SATIRES ON BOTH SIDES OF THE ISSUE

New York Group Spices Up Its Khutbah http://ds-films.com/khutba.htm

The Secret of Why Only Men Can Lead Prayer: An Interview with Saudi Scientist Dr. Muhammad bin Saad an-Nutfah http://www.muslimwakeup.com/main/archives/2005/03/the_secret_of_w.php#more


DISCUSSION GROUPS ARE TALKING ABOUT THE ISSUE

http://www.maryams.net/dervish/index.php/2005/03/14/p446

http://www.muslimwakeup.com/movabletype3/mt-comments.cgi?entry_id=2713

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/talking_point/4369681.stm 

STATEMENTS AND COUNTER STATEMENTS ARE BEING MADE

A Critique of the Argument for Women Led Friday Prayers, Dr. Hina Azam http://www.altmuslim.com/perm.php?id=1416_0_24_0_M  A response to Dr. Azam’s Critique, Hussein Ibish http://www.muslimwakeup.com/main/archives/2005/03/erudition_as_de.php#more

Rand Reports Attempt to Change Islam, Abdus Sattar Ghazzali http://www.iviews.com/Articles/articles.asp?ref=IV0503-2647  Response to this article Fighting Manipulation With Conspiracy, Hesham Hessaballa http://www.altmuslim.com/perm.php?id=1420_0_25_0_C

Women Leading Friday Prayers: Why Am I Silent, M.A. Muqtedar Khan http://www.ijtihad.org/Wadud.htm Response to Muqtedar Khan’s Article http://www.muslimwakeup.com/blog/archives/2005/03/poultry_in_moti.php 

A Womans Reflection on Leading Prayer, Yasmin Moghahed  and A Response to Yasmin Mogahed’s article by Ginan Rauf

Islam’s Encounter With American Culture: Making Sense of the Progressive Muslim Agenda, Louay M. Safi and A Cunning Con-Census, a response by by Hussein Ibish

 

SCHOLARS HAVE GIVEN OPINIONS ON THE ISSUE

A Critique of the Argument for Women Led Friday Prayers, Dr. Hina Azam http://www.altmuslim.com/perm.php?id=1416_0_24_0_M  A response to Dr. Azam’s Critique, Hussein Ibish http://www.muslimwakeup.com/main/archives/2005/03/erudition_as_de.php#more

Can a Woman be an Imam? Debating Form and Function in Muslim Women’s Leadership, Ingrid Mattson http://macdonald.hartsem.edu/muslimwomensleadership.pdf

Examination of Women and Prayer Leadership, Imam Zaid Shakir http://www.iio.org/filemgmt_data/files/female%20imam.pdf

Position on Muslim Woman Leading Salat, Sh. M. Nur Abdullah   http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2005jan_comments.php?id=569_0_31_0_C  and http://www.isna.net/news/miniheadlines.asp?dismode=article&artid=565 

Position on Women Leading Salat, Yusuf al Qaradawi http://www.turkishpress.com/news.asp?id=39045  and http://www.islamonline.net/fatwaapplication/english/display.asp?hFatwaID=122751

Position on Women Leading Salat, Islamic Fiqh Academy of the OIC http://www.arabnews.com/?page=4§ion=0&article=60899&d=23&m=3&y=2005  and http://www.keralanext.com/news/indexread.asp?id=160656 

Position on Women Leading Prayers by Muhammad Abdel Ghani Shamaa, an advisor to the Egyptian Ministry of Awqaf http://www.cairomagazine.com/?module=displaystory&story_id=814&format=html 

Position on Women Leading Salat, Javed Ghamidi, Al-Mawrid Institute of Islamic Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_24-4-2005_pg7_13

Women Cannot Be Imams, Datuk Dr Abdullah Mohamed Zin of Malaysia http://www.nst.com.my/Current_News/NST/Sunday/National/NST32296889.txt/Article/indexb_html


THE GRAND MUFTI OF EGYPT IS QUOTED AS BOTH ALLOWING AND DISALLOWING WOMEN LEADING MIXED GENDER PRAYER

Position on Women Leading Salat, Sh. Ali Gum’a Grand Mufti of Egypt http://www.muslimwakeup.com/main/archives/2005/03/thank_you_sheik.php 

another article saying he gave the opposite opinion

http://www.swissinfo.org/sen/swissinfo.html?siteSect=143&sid=5621062 


SOME SEE A CONNECTION WITH OTHER EVENTS AND GROUPS (CONSPIRACY THEORIES)

Mideast Muslims See Conspiracy http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1366312/posts

Planned Provocation, Norman Griebel http://www.muslim-affairs.com/home/artikel.cgi?nr=94

Rand Reports Attempt to Change Islam, Abdus Sattar Ghazzali http://www.iviews.com/Articles/articles.asp?ref=IV0503-2647  and Rand Report Revisited http://www.aljazeerah.info/Opinion%20editorials/2005%20Opinion%20Editorials/March/19o/Rand%20Report%20on%20Islam%20revisited%20By%20Abdus%20Sattar%20Ghazali.htm  Response to this article Fighting Manipulation With Conspiracy, Hesham Hessaballa http://www.altmuslim.com/perm.php?id=1420_0_25_0_C

 

SOME BACKGROUND ON THE ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED

Free Muslims Against Terrorism

Muslim Women Are Finally Demanding Equality, Kamal Nawash http://www.freemuslims.org/news/article.php?article=491

Muslim Women’s Freedom Tour

Muslim Women’s Freedom Tour http://asranomani.com/freedom/

Muslim Wakeup

Mission Statement http://www.muslimwakeup.com/info/

Time to Wake Up, Rob Eshman http://www.jewishjournal.com/home/preview.php?id=13753

Progressive Muslim Union (PMU)

A South African View of the PMU, Na’eem Janeh http://www.amperspective.com/html/a_south_african.html

COLLOQUIUM: ‘Progressive Muslims’ Call for Abandoning Religion in order to Survive?”
By Robert D. Crane http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2005jan_comments.php?id=577_0_31_0_C

Epicure’s Bastards: Proponents of Religious Anarchy in Islam, by Ayub Khan http://usa.mediamonitors.net/content/view/full/13796/

Failing to Find Moderate Muslims at the PMU, Daniel Pipes http://www.danielpipes.org/blog/361

Progressive Muslim Union Formed http://www.archives2004.ghazali.net/html/progressive_muslims_union.html

Progressive Muslim Union, Kaleem Kawaja http://www.pakistanlink.com/Opinion/2004/Dec04/31/08.htm

Progressive Muslim Union, Rachel Zoll http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A36994-2004Oct15.html

Progressive American Muslims Push for a Reinterpretation of Islam http://www.usatoday.com/news/religion/2004-10-07-progressive-muslims_x.htm

Re-examing the Practice of Faith http://www.contracostatimes.com/mld/cctimes/news/11248494.htm 

Why We are Launching a Progressive Muslim Union http://www.muslimwakeup.com/main/archives/2004/11/why_we_are_laun.php

SEE ALSO the collection of articles under GENDER ISSUES http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2003nov_comments.php?id=427_0_23_0_C

 


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