Islamophobia: A new word for an old fear - Part IV Notes and Appendices

Notes
[1]      Cited in, for example, ‘Christianity and Islam’ by Jeremy Johns, in John McManners, ed (1990), page 194.

[2]    Both Bessarion and Renan are quoted by John Esposito in The Islamic Threat: myth or reality, 1992.

[3]  See for example Islam and the Myth of Confrontation by Fred Halliday, I.B.Tauris 1996.

[4]      Sunday Telegraph, 3 February 1991.

[5]    ‘I Believe in Islamophobia’, Daily Telegraph, 1 March 1997.

[6]      Samuel Huntington: The Clash of Civilisations and the Remaking of World Order, Simon and Schuster 1996.

[7]      The quotations are from a speech by David Atkinson MP at a meeting of the Western European Union, reported in his local newspaper, the Bournemouth Evening Echo, 7/8 December 1994. 

[8]      ‘Prince Charles is wrong – Islam does menace the West’, by Patrick Sookhdeo, Daily Telegraph, 19 December 1996.

[9]      Television interview reported by Inter Press Service, 18 February 1995.

[10]      Clare Hollingsworth: International Herald Tribune, 9 November 1993.

[11]  Samuel Huntington, The Clash of Civilisations and the Remaking of World Order, 1996, page 217.

[12]      Bernard Levin: The Times, 21 April 1995.

[13]      Charles Moore: ‘Time for a More Liberal and “Racist” Immigration Policy’, The Spectator, 19 October 1991.

[14]      The Sun, 12 November 1991.

[15]  Carol Sarler, The People, 15 January 1995.

[16]  ‘Muslim Community Development: a starting point’, Leicester, March 1996.

[17]      One comment which gave much offence in this connection was the claim that the Qur’an is “food for no-thought.  It is not a poem on which society can be safely or sensibly based.  It gives weapons and strength to the thought police.” (Fay Weldon: Sacred Cows, 1989.)  The author later maintained in an interview that these “peaceful and apt” words are “a perfectly valid comment to make about either the Bible or the Koran.”  She said also: “I say hooray for Muslims and down with Islam.  The mullahs have done everyone a great disservice.”  (Independent on Sunday, 2 March 1997.) 

[18]      Stephen Spender: ‘Hoist By His Own Canard’,  The Spectator, 16 November 1991.


IMAM Dr Abduljalil Sajid
Chairman Muslim Council for Religious and Racial Harmony UK
Secretary Muslim Council of Britain (MCB) Mosques and Community Affairs Committee and member of Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia
8 Caburn Road, Hove, East Sussex, BN3 6EF, England
Tel: +44 (0) 1273 722438 Fax: +44 (0) 1273 326051
Mobile: +44 (0) 7971 861972
Email: .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address), .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)
24.10.2004

APENDIX 1: News item

1) Islamophobia linked to war on terror, says prosecutor
By Robert Verkaik Legal Affairs Correspondent
23 October 2004

http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/legal/story.jsp?story=575260

An explosion in racist crime and a sharp rise in the number of young Asian men being stopped by the police threatens to alienate Britain’s Muslim communities, the Director of Public Prosecutions has warned.

Ken Macdonald QC, speaking to The Independent after his first year in charge of prosecutions, said that the war on terror had sparked a growth in Islamophobia and led to a more divided society. He warned: “Terrorism is creating divisions between our diverse societies. We have to be careful that we respect diverse cultures and we prosecute cases without discrimination.

“What the figures are showing is that a large number of young Asian men have been stopped by the police.” He added: “This is a period of heightened security around the issue of terrorism and that’s a position that has to be managed. It would be dangerous for us to alienate whole communities; we just have to tread carefully.”

Home Office figures show that stop and searches of Asians under anti-terror laws have soared by 302 per cent in a year. At the same time the figures for race hate crime revealed an increase of 50 per cent in the past two years with 2,000 more cases being prosecuted than when the law was introduced in 1999.

The trend is expected to continue when the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) publishes further findings at the end of the year. Mr Macdonald said that the typical race hate element of a crime involved white youths calling Asians “Mullahs, Bin Ladens or Taliban”.

He said that while there was a “real growth” in these kind of offences, Asian communities felt further threatened by the way the police were using their stop and search powers.

Mr Macdonald, a co-founder of Matrix chambers and friend of Cherie Booth QC, has made special efforts to try to reassure Muslim community leaders that the CPS will not discriminate in the prosecution of cases against Muslims.

The perception that Asian men are being unfairly targeted is supported by figures that show few of those arrested under the terrorism legislation have been charged or convicted. Between September 2001 and January this year, 544 people had been arrested, 98 charged and only six convicted.

The Director of Public Prosecutions compared the present situation to the “sus” laws of the 1970s, which were disproportionately used against black men and finally sparked race riots in Brixton, south London, and Toxteth, Liverpool. But the DPP said he didn’t think that the current tensions posed that kind of danger yet.

Earlier this month the DPP held a meeting with 30 representatives from Muslim communities. He said: “There’s a great fear on behalf of some of their leaders that under stop and search they are being criminalised.”

He also defended the gap between arrest and conviction rates in terrorism cases. “It’s inevitable that more people will be arrested for terrorism than are prosecuted ... A lot of people arrested under the Terrorism Act are prosecuted outside this legislation [for other offences] so they look like they have dropped out of figures.”

Mr Macdonald conceded that “traditionally” the conviction rate for terrorism has been high - much higher than any other offence. But he said the nature of terrorism had changed since the days he defended IRA suspects when he was a leading defence barrister in the 1980s. “They were much more straightforward and almost no one was acquitted.”

But he says that plans to introduce a religious hatred law had raised the expectation among Asian communities that they might be protected from people insulting their religions. “Of course it won’t. We are all free to insult each other. To call someone a Mullah or a Bin Laden is not a criminal offence although it might be bad manners. We’ve got to manage it so that people don’t think that anyone who says anything offensive about Islam [or any other religion] will be prosecuted,” he says.

He added: “We will only prosecute those who incite religious hatred ... it’s got to go beyond something insulting or offensive.”

2) Islamophobia must be purged from the criminal justice system
23 October 2004
http://argument.independent.co.uk/leading_articles/story.jsp?story=575208

There is little mystery about what fuels Islamophobia. The terrorist attacks of 11 September, 2001, the atrocities - such as the Bali bombing - which followed, and the recent kidnappings and beheadings of Westerners in Iraq have all served to identify terrorism with Islam. The irrefutable fact that some terrorists believe they are acting in the name of a particular strain of Islam, however, does not mean that all terrorism has its roots in fundamentalist Islam. Still less does it mean that all Muslims - or people who look or dress in a particular way - are terrorists in the making.  Article Length: 486 words (approx.)


3) War on terror sparked a growth in “Islamophobia”: UK
http://www.ptinews.com/pti%5Cptisite.nsf/0/9A9083CA6D50CF1465256F3600447397?OpenDocument
Oct 23, 2004 17:49:00 LONDON FES67
http://www.ptinews.com/pti/ptisite.nsf/0/9A9083CA6D50CF1465256F3600447397?OpenDocument

London, Oct 23 (PTI) With an increase in number of Asians being stopped by the police under anti-terror laws, Britain’s Director of Public Prosecutions has warned that the war on terror had sparked a growth in “Islamophobia” and led to a more divided society.
“The war on terror had sparked a growth in Islamophobia and led to a more divided society”, Ken Macdonald QC said.

He said “terrorism is creating divisions between our diverse societies. We have to be careful that we respect diverse cultures and we prosecute cases with discrimination”.

“What the figures are showing is that a large number of young Asian men have been stopped by the police”, a London daily, quoting him, said and added “this is a period of heightened security around the issue of terrorism and that’s a position that has to be managed.” “It would be dangerous for us to alienate whole communities, we just have to tread carefully”, The Independent said.

Home Office figures showed stop and searches of Asians under anti-terror laws have soared by 302 per cent in a year and the figures for racist crime revealed an increase of 50 per cent in the past two years. PTI

Other Links

War on terror sparked a growth in “Islamophobia”: UK
Oct 23, 2004 17:49:00 LONDON FES67
http://www.ptinews.com/pti%5Cptisite.nsf/0/9A9083CA6D50CF1465256F3600447397?OpenDocument

Bargaining scheme for terrorist suspects
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2004/10/25/nterr25.xml

4) MPACUK And The Sunday Telegraph and Double standard Islamophobia in the Press
http://www2.mpacuk.org/content/view/3/77/33/
Saturday, 23 October 2004

The Sunday Telegraph give MPACUK the right to reply following a complaint to the Press Complaints Commission.

MPACUK Original Letter

Sir,

Thank you for giving MPACUK the opportunity of responding to Will Cummin’s allegation of extremism against us.

We understand that the Sunday Telegraph stands by Mr Cummins allegation. MPACUK would like to make clear exactly what we stand for as we are not “extreme”.

MPACUK’s main aim is to encourage British Muslims to become better UK citizens. We are working to ensure high voter turnout in elections and for more Muslims to join the political parties that they support. It is very important that people understand who they are voting for and that their concerns and needs will be represented by their elected MPs.

We believe that all British citizens need to hold their MPs to account, this is what makes a healthy democracy.

As for Middle East policy, we believe that the two peace plans proposed by Saudi Arabia present the basis of a lasting peaceful two state solution.

The pro-Israeli press need to acknowledge that those who criticise Israel for the atrocities it commits against Palestinians are not extremists.

Acknowledging that British Muslims make a positive contribution to British society would be a start. Something that no doubt Mr Cummins would argue against most vigourously.

Yours Faithfully

MPACUK

The Sunday Telegraph Edited Letter That Was Printed

Sir,

We understand that the Sunday Telegraph does not regret publishing Mr Cummins’ allegation that MPACUK is an extremist organisation.

MPACUKs main aim is to encourage British Muslims to become better UK citizens. We are working to ensure high voter turnouts in elections and for more Muslims to join the political parties that they support. It is very important that people understand who they are voting for and that their concerns and needs will be represented by their elected MPs. The pro-Israeli press need to acknowledge that those who criticise Israel for the atrocities it commits against Palestinians are not extremists.

Acknowledging that British Muslims make a positive contribution to British society would be a start. Something that no doubt Mr Cummins would argue against most vigorously.

Yours Faithfully

MPACUK

Muslim graves smashed in teenagers’ rampage, court told
26-10-2004
By Nicola Bowden
http://www.muslimnews.co.uk/news/news.php?article=8298

PA News:

A group of teenagers rampaged in a cemetery, shouting religious abuse and deliberately smashing Muslim gravestones, a court heard today.

The graves, which were all for Turkish Muslims, were allegedly targeted by the trio because of their religion, the court was told.

They were the subject of a “deliberate and systematic” religious attack in which headstones were knocked over and pictures left in memory of loved ones were prised off and smashed with a hammer, the jury at Inner London Crown Court heard.

“This case involves the deliberate and systematic desecration of gravestones belonging to certain members of the community, namely Muslims,” Carl Hackman, prosecuting, said.

The three teenagers, aged 17, 15 and 14, from east London, entered Charlton Cemetery in south London on March 17 of this year and damaged 47 Muslim graves, it was claimed.

The trio, who cannot be identified for legal reasons, admit some level of criminal damage but deny the attack was religiously motivated.

One did, according to Mr Hackman, say in a police interview that he could remember the phrase “Paki bastard” being used during what Mr Hackman said was an attack based on “hostility to a particular sector of the community”.

The court was told the three entered the London cemetery in the early evening, after employees had locked it and left for the day.

They then allegedly rampaged around the graves, smashing and knocking over headstones, and using a hammer to break pictures left on the graves in memory of those lying there.

“These gravestones were the resting place of those devoted to the Islamic faith, in a particular section of the cemetery which was set aside for people of that faith,” Mr Hackman said.

A 10-minute video, on which graves without headstones and rows of damaged burial plots were filmed, was shown to the jury.

Afterwards Mr Hackman said: “As you can see, there can be no question that the damage was deliberate and comprehensive and aimed at a particular sector of the community, graves of deceased Muslims.”

Later a gravedigger at the cemetery, Frank Davis, said he had noticed something wrong when he came to work the day after the alleged attack.

“There was something not quite right,” Mr Davis said. “I thought it was a pile of soil but when I looked over it was the concrete base of a gravestone that had been pushed over. It became apparent that a lot of others had been damaged, some broken and pictures of loved ones broken and smashed.”

The gravestones would have needed at least two people to push them over, he said. One Catholic grave was also damaged in the attack, it was said.

APENDIX 2: Further Reading

[Jeremy Seabrook: Religion as a Fig Leaf for Racism (http://www.guardian.co.uk/race/story/0,11374,1267567,00.html)]

Wards adherents of Islam. Responding to Hate Speech: A Citizen’s Guide]

[Dr Anya Rudiger of The European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia discusses Islamophobia as a form of racism. (http://www.sant.ox.ac.uk/princeton/pap_rudiger.shtml)]

[ Tariq Ramadan: Islam and Muslims in Europe (http://eumc.eu.int/eumc/index.php?fuseaction=content.dsp_cat_content&contentid=3e3e8c602f879&catid=3e3e6e32a2316&search=1&frmsearch=Islamophobia&lang=EN)]

[Maleiha Malik discusses the social exclusion of Muslims in UK due to Islamophobia. (http://www.sant.ox.ac.uk/princeton/pap_malik.shtml)]

[Runnymede Trust. Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All (http://www.runnymedetrust.org/publications/pdfs/islamophobia.pdf)]

[Forum Against Islamophobia and Racism, a charity that promotes inter faith understanding and defines Islamophobia as a form of racism. (http://www.fairuk.org/)]

[Oxford & Princeton Universities: Muslims in Europe Post 9/11. (http://www.sant.ox.ac.uk/princeton/index.shtml)]

[Trapped in the Ruins. William Dalrymple examines attempts to re-write the history of Islam in India. (http://books.guardian.co.uk/review/story/0,,1172782,00.html)]

[European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (http://eumc.eu.int/eumc/index.php)]

[ADL Responds to Violence and Harassment against Arab Americans and Muslim Americans (http://www.adl.org/terrorism_america/adl_responds.asp)]

Examples of use by the writer Faisal Bodi:

The Guardian: Call this monster by its name (http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,715150,00.html)

The Guardian: Old hatred, new style (http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,528063,00.html)

The Guardian: To say that jihadis are a threat is not Islamophobic (http://www.guardian.co.uk/g2/story/0,3604,719159,00.html)

APENDIX 3: SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

(All publishers are in London, except where indicated)

AbuKhalil, As ’ad (2002) Bin Laden, Islam, and America’s New ‘War on Terrorism’, New York: Seven Stories Press

Ahmed, Akbar (2003) Islam under Siege: living dangerously in a post-honour world, Cambridge: Polity Press

Ahmed, Nafeez and Faisal Bodi, Raza Kazim and Massoud Shadjareh (2001) The Oldham Riots: discrimination, deprivation and communal tension in the United Kingdom, Islamic Human Rights Commission

Allen, Christopher (2003) Fair Justice: the Bradford disturbances, the sentencing and the impact, Forum Against Islamophobia and Racism

Allen, Christopher and Jørgen Nielsen (2002) Summary Report on Islamophobia in the European Union after 11 September 2001, Vienna: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia

Ali, Monica (2003) Brick Lane, Doubleday

Ali, Tariq (2002) The Clash of Fundamentalisms: crusades, jihads and modernity, Verso

Alibhai-Brown, Yasmin (2001) We British Muslims Must Reclaim Our Faith from the Fanatics, The Independent, 5 November

Ameli, Saied Reza (2002) Globalisation, Americanisation and British Muslim Identity, ICAS Press

Amnesty International UK (2003) Justice Perverted under the Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001, Amnesty

Anwar, Mohammed and Qadir Bakhsh (2003) British Muslims and State Policies, Warwick: Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations

Aziz, Mohammed (2003a) Envisioning Religious Equality in Britain over the Next Ten Years, Equal Opportunities Review, January

Aziz, Mohammed (2003b) Equality and Diversity in Modern Britain: the Muslim perspective, Connections, Commission for Racial Equality, February

Bell, David (2003) Access and Achievement in Urban Education: ten years on, Fabian Society

Bennett, Catherine (2001) Blunkett Pays Lip Service to Free Speech, The Guardian, 18 October

Berkeley, Rob (2002) Foreword, in Runnymede Trust, Cohesion, Community and Citizenship, The Runnymede Trust

Bhatia, Amir (2003) The Fight Against Antisemitism and Islamophobia: bringing communities together, Brussels: EU Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs

Bhattacharyya, Gargi, Lisa Ison and Maud Blair (2003) Minority Ethnic Achievement and Progress in Education and Training: the evidence, Department for Education and Skills

Birt, Yahya and Philip Lewis (2004)

Birt, Yahya (2001) Being in a Real Man in Islam: drugs, criminality and the problem of masculinity’, Masud Khan Homepage, June

Bodi, Faisal (2002) Muslims Got Cantle, What They Needed Was Scarman, The Guardian, 1 July

Bodi, Faisal (1999) Is there life after Macpherson? Q News, March

Bunglawala, Inayat (2003) Don’t Let the Evil of Extremism Taint Islam’s Good Name, The Daily Telegraph, 17 September

Bunglawala, Inayat (2002a) British Muslims and the Media, in Muslim Council of Britain, The Quest for Sanity, pp 43-52.

Bunglawala, Inayat (2002b) It’s Getting Harder To Be A British Muslim, The Observer, 19 May

Cabinet Office Strategy Unit (2003) Ethnic Minorities and the Labour Market, Cabinet Office

Churches’ Commission for Racial Justice (2003) Redeeming the Time: all God’s people must challenge racism, Churches Together in Britain and Ireland

Commission for Racial Equality (2003a) The Murder of Zahid Mubarek, Commission for Racial Equality

Commission for Racial Equality (2003b) Racial Equality in Prisons, Commission for Racial Equality

Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia (1997), Islamophobia, a challenge for us all, Runnymede Trust

Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia (2001), Addressing the Challenge of Islamophobia: progress report, 1999–2001, Uniting Britain Trust

Commission on the Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain (2000), The Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain: the Parekh Report, Profile Books

Connolly, Paul (2000) What Now for the Contact Hypothesis? – towards a new research agenda, Race Ethnicity and Education, vol. 3 no.2, June

Cook, Robin (2003) France need not fear schoolgirls in headscarves, The Independent, 19 December

Council of Europe (2000) Combating Intolerance and Discrimination Against Muslims, 27 April

Cox, Caroline and John Marks (2003) The ‘West’, Islam and Islamism: is ideological Islam compatible with liberal democracy? Civitas

Cross-Party Working Group on Religious Hatred (2002) Tackling Religious Hatred, Edinburgh: Scottish Executive

Davies, Merryl Wyn (2002) Wilful Imaginings, New Internationalist, no. 345, May

Ealing Education Authority (2003) Preventing and Addressing Racism in Schools, London Borough of Ealing

European Centre for Work and Society (2001) Situation of Islamic Communities in Five European Cities, Vienna: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia

European Monitoring Centre (2002) The Fight Against Antisemitism and Islamophobia: bringing communities together, Vienna: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia

European Monitoring Centre (2002) Racism and Cultural Diversity in the Mass Media, Vienna: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia

Fukuyama, Francis (2001), The Real Enemy, New York: Newsweek, special issue, December

Haddock, Maureen (2003) Community Cohesion Initiatives in Oldham Primary Schools, Oldham Metropolitan Borough Council

Halliday, Fred (2002) Two Hours that Shook the World, IB Tauris

Hansen, Randall (2003) Measures of Integration, Connections, Commission for Racial Equality, summer

Haque, Zubaida (2000) The Ethnic Minority ‘Underachieving’ Group? – investigating the claims of ‘underachievement’ amongst Bangladeshi pupils in British secondary schools, Race Ethnicity and Education, vol. 3 no.2, June

Henzell-Yhomas, Jeremy (2002) The Challenge of Pluralism and the Middle Way of Islam, Association of Muslim Social Scientists

Hepple, Bob and Tufyal Choudhury (2001) Tackling Religious Discrimination: practical implications for policy-makers and legislators, Home Office Research Study 221

Hershberg, Eric and Kevin Moore (2002) Critical Views of September 11: analyses from around the world, New York: The New Press

Hertsgaard, Mark (2002) The Eagle’s Shadow: why America fascinates and infuriates the world, Bloomsbury Publishing

Hewstone, Miles (2003) Intergroup Contact: panacea for prejudice? The Psychologist, vol. 16 no. 7, July

Hoge, James and Gideon Rose (2001) How Did This Happen? Oxford: Public Affairs Ltd

Home Office (2003a) Community Cohesion Pathfinder programme: the first six months, Home Office

Home Office (2003b) Building a Picture of Community Cohesion: a guide for local authorities and their partners, Home Office

Hurst, Fiona and Mohammed Nisar (2003) Positive Contacts between British Muslims and Jews: a model of good practice for all British communities, Stone Ashdown Trust

Hussain, Asad (2003 new edition) Western Conflict with Islam, Leicester: Volcano

Imran, Muhammad and Elaine Miskell (2003) Citizenship and Muslim Perspectives: teachers sharing ideas, Birmingham: Development Education Centre

Inter Faith Network (2003a) Local Inter faith Activity in the UK: a survey, Inter Faith Network

Inter Faith Network (2003b) Partnerships for the Common Good: interfaith structures and local government, Inter Faith Network

Kelly, Elinor (2004) Integration, Assimilation and Social Inclusion: questions of faith, Policy Futures in Education, vol.2 no. 1, March

Khan, Humera (2002) The Next Intifada, Q News, July/August

Kundnani, Arun (2001) From Oldham to Bradford: the violence of the violated, Institute of Race Relations

Kundnani, Arun (2002) An Unholy Alliance? – racism, reigion and communalism, Institute of Race Relations, 30 July

Lederach, John Paul (1998) Beyond Violence: building sustainable peace, in Eugene Weiner, ed, The Handbook of Interethnic Coexistence, New York: Continuum Publishing, pp. 236-245.

Lewis, Philip (2002) Between Lord Ahmed and Ali G: which future for British Muslims?, in Shahid, W.A.R. and P.S. van Koningsfeld, eds, Religious Freedom and the Neutrality of the State: the position of Islam in the European Union, Leuven: Peeters

Luton Borough Council (2003) Sticking Together, Embracing Diversity: report of the community cohesion scrutiny panel, Luton

Malik, Aftab Ahmad, ed. (2003) The Empire and the Crescent: global implications for a new American century, Bristol: Amal Press

McManus, Jim (2001) Friends or Strangers? – faith communities and community safety, National Association for the Care and Rehabilitation for Offenders

Modood, M.S. (2003) My Faith and I Rest Here, privately published

Modood, Tariq (2002a) The Power of Dialogue, in Muslim Council of Britain, The Quest for Sanity, pp 112-116.

Modood, Tariq (2002b) Muslims and the Politics of Multiculturalism in Britain, in Hershberg, Eric and Kevin Moore (2002) Critical Views of September 11: analyses from around the world, New York: The New Press, pp 193-208.

Muir, Hugh (2003) Mosques Launch Protests over ‘Terror’ Arrests, The Guardian, 13 December

Mukherjee, Bharati (2003) Alien Nation, Financial Times Magazine, 13 September

Muslim Council of Britain (2002) The Quest for Sanity: reflections on September 11 and the aftermath, Muslim council of Britain

Muslim Liaison Committee (2001) Revised Guidelines on Meeting the Religious and Cultural Needs of Muslim Pupils, Birmingham Central Mosque

National Association of Schoolmasters and Union of Women Teachers (2003) Islamophobia: advice for schools and colleges, NASUWT

National Health Service (2003) Chaplaincy: meeting the religious and spiritual needs of patients and staff, Department of Health

Noor, Farish (1997), ed, Terrorising the Truth, Penang: Just World Trust

Noorani, A. G. (2002) Islam and Jihad – prejudice versus reality, Zed Books

Open Society Institute (2002) Monitoring Minority Protection in the EU: the situation of Muslims in the UK, Budapest and New York: Open Society Institute

O’Sullivan, Jack (2001) Voices behind the Veil, The Guardian, 24 September

Ouseley, Herman (2001) Community Pride Not Prejudice: making diversity work in Bradford, Bradford: Bradford Vision

Parekh, Bhikhu (2002) Common Belonging, in Runnymede Trust, Cohesion, Community and Citizenship, The Runnymede Trust, pp 1-8

Porter, Henry (2001) We Are Right to Fight, The Observer, 14 October

Poulter, Sebastian (1990) Towards Legislative Reform of the Blasphemy and Racial Hatred Laws, Public Law, autumn

Prasad, Raekha (2003) No Holds Barred, The Guardian, 10 December

Ramadan, Tariq (2003) Western Muslims and the Future of Islam, Oxford University Press

Ramadan, Tariq (1999) To be a European Muslim: a study of Islamic sources in the European context, Leicester: The Islamic Foundation

Race, Alan (2001) Interfaith Encounter: the twin tracks of theology and dialogue, SCM Press

Rattansi, Ali (2002) Who’s British? – Prospect and the new assimilationism, in Runnymede Trust, Cohesion, Community and Citizenship, The Runnymede Trust, pp 96-105

Richardson, Robin and Berenice Miles (2003) Equality Stories: recognition, respect and raising achievement, Stoke on Trent: Trentham

Rifkind, Jeremy (2001) Dialogue is a Necessity, The Guardian, 13 November

Runnymede (2003) Developing Community Cohesion: understanding the issues, delivering solutions, Runnymede Trust

Runnymede (2002) Cohesion, Community and Citizenship: proceedings of a Runnymede conference, Runnymede Trust

Said, Edward (1987, reprinted with new introduction 2003) Orientalism, Penguin

Said, Edward (1981, reprinted with new introduction 1997) Covering Islam: how the media and the experts determine how we see the rest of the world, Vintage

Samad, Yunas (1998) Media and Muslim Identity: intersections of generation and gender, Innovation, vol 11 (4), pp 425-438.

Sardar, Ziauddin and Merryl Wyn Davies (2002) Why Do People Hate America? Cambridge: Icon Books

Sardar, Ziauddin (2003) Cultivating the Soil, Emel, September/October

Sardar, Ziauddin, ashis nandy and Merryl Wyn Davies (1993) Barbaric Others: a manifesto on western racism, Pluto Press

Scruton, Roger (2002) The West and the Rest: globalisation and the terrorist threat, Continuum

Skapinker, Michael (2003) Beyond Belief, Financial Times Magazine, 9 August

Seddon, Mohammad Siddique, Dilwar Hussain and Nadeem Malik (2003) British Muslims: loyalty and belonging, Leicester: Islamic Foundation

Shain, Farzana (2003) The Schooling and Identity of Asian Girls, Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books

Sibbitt, Rae (1997) The Perpetrators of Racial Harassment and Racial Violence, Home Office

South Yorkshire NHS (2003) Caring for the Spirit, South Yorkshire NHS

Stothard, Peter (2003) 30 Days: a month at the heart of Blair’s war, HarperCollins

Taylor, Charles (1993) The Politics of Recognition, in Amy Gutmann, ed., Multiculturalism and the Politics of Recognition, Harvard University Press

Thatcher, Margaret (2002) Islamism is the New Bolshevism, New York Times, reprinted in The Guardian, 12 February

Toynbe, Polly (2001) Last Chance to Speak Out, The Guardian, 5 October

Villate-Compton, Pascale (2002) La Menace Sans Visage: images de l’ennemi dans la presse britannique ?  la suite des attentats du 11 septembre 2001, France: Université de Tours

Weller, Paul and Alice Feldman and Kingsley Purdam (2001) Religious Discrimination in England and Wales, Home Office Research Study 220

Whitaker, Brian (2002) Islam and the British Press, in Muslim Council of Britain, The Quest for Sanity, pp 53-57.

White, Amanda (2002) Social Focus in Brief: ethnicity, Office of National Statistics

Williams, Rowan (2002) Writing in the Dust,

Wilson, David (2003) Playing the Game: the experiences of young black men in custody, Children’s Society

Yahmed, Hadi (2003) Islamophobia Escalates in France, Islam Online, 17 November

Yarde, Rosalind (2001) Demons of the Day, The Guardian, 12 November

Young, Hugo (2001) A Corrosive National Danger in our Multicultural Model, The Guardian, 6 November 2001

Younge, Gary (2003) The Wrong Way Round, The Guardian, 8 September

APENDIX 4: ACAS Guidance

Religion or Belief Discrimination Regulations – 2 December 2003
Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations 2003 Draft Guidance Document www.acas.org.uk/publications/pdf/art13R&B.pdf

DTI has produced good summary of 2nd December 2003 legislation on the European Directive of 2000/78/EC 27 November 2000 under the Article 13 of the European Union Treaty has been incorporated in British domestic legislation which will be enforced with effect from 2nd December 2003.  This will effectively protect individual employees from discrimination and harassment on grounds of religion or belief. This EU Directive does not cover services or goods and is not comprehensive in covering group’s organisations or faith communities It is recommended that comprehensive law banning religious discrimination and incitement against religious hatred be enacted as soon as possible. 

APENDIX 5: Websites on Islamophobia

On Islamophobia, the first port of call is the Forum against Islamophobia and Racism (FAIR) at www.fairuk.org.uk Amongst other things FAIR has a valuable news service whereby subscribers receive free of charge, several times a week, a selection of news items.

Guidelines from the National Union of Schoolmasters and Union of Women Teachers on combating Islamophobia in education can be downloaded from www.nasuwt.org.uk 

The Honest News site (http://www.honestnews.com) has substantial discussions of Islamophobia in the media.

At the Runnymede Trust (http://www.runnymedetrust.org) there are extracts from the 1997 report.

British Muslims

For current issues affecting British Muslims, it is particularly worth visiting::

Forum Against Islamophobia (http://www.fairuk.org.uk) – valuable news service whereby subscribers receive free of charge, several times a week, a selection of news items.

Honest News (http://www.honestnews.com) – substantial discussions of Islamophobia in the media.

Islamic Human Rights Commission (http://www.ihrc.org) – strong international focus as well as British

Islamic Society of Britain (http://www.isb.org.uk) – conferences, news and events

Muslim Association of Britain (http://www.mabonline.net) – comment, news, discussions and articles

Muslim Council of Britain (http://www.mcb.org.uk) – a wide range of comment and useful statistics, updated several times a week

Muslim Directory (http://www.muslimdirectory.co.uk) – substantial lists of contacts and links

Muslim News (http://www.muslimnews.co.uk) – substantial archive of news items, articles and comment

Muslim Voices pages at the Guardian (http://www.guardian.co.uk/muslimvoices) –  views of international affairs

Q News (http://www.q-news.com) – brief summaries of key articles over the years

Salaam (http://www.salaam.co.uk) – wide-ranging data on Islam in Britain

Islamic culture and faith

The sites mentioned above have many links to sites specialising in issues of Islamic faith, culture and spirituality. So do the following:

Council on American-Islamic Relations www.cair-net.org

Impact International

Islamic Information and Support Centre of Australia www.iisca.org 

Islamic Cultural Centre www.islamicculturalcentre.co.uk

Islamic Relief (http://www.islamic-relief.com)

Islamicity (http://www.islamicity.com)

Islam Online (http://www.islamonline.net)

Islamic Awareness Week (http://www.iaw.org.uk)

Islam for Today (http://www.islamfortoday.com)

Islam in the United States (http://www.islam-usa.com

Islamic Foundation (http://www.islamic-foundation.org.uk)

Islamic Solutions (http://www.islamicsolutions.com

IQRA Trust ( [url=http://www.iqratrust.org.uk]http://www.iqratrust.org.uk)[/url]

Masud (http://www.masud.co.uk)

Mosaic International (http://www.mosaicinformation.org.uk

Muslim Educational Trust (http://www.muslim-ed-trust.org.uk)

Muslim Heritage (http://www.muslimheritage.com)

Muslim Family Network (http://www.al-usrah.net)

Ummah (http://www.ummah.org.uk/what-is-islam)

Ummah News (http://www.ummahnews.com)

Virtual Classroom ((http://www.thevirtualclassroom.net)

Young Muslims UK (http://www.ymuk.net)

Interfaith dialogue and activities

BBC (http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion

The Interfaith Network for the UK (http://www.interfaith.org.uk)

Government

Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (http://www.acas.org.uk)

Crown Prosecution Service (http://www.cps.gov.uk)

Faith Communities Unit (http://www.homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk)

Foreign Office (http://www.fco.gov.uk)

Inner Cities Religious Council (http://www.odpm.gov.uk)

Local Government Association (http://www.lga.gov.uk)

Europe

Collectif Contre l’Islamophobie en France http://islamophobie.net – (in French) useful discussions of current issues and news of campaigns and events

European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (http://eumc.eu.int) – includes links to organisations throughout Europe concerned with combating racism and Islamophobia

Forum of European Muslim Youth and Student Organisations (http://www.femyso.com) – news of conferences and events

Institute for the Study of Islam in the Modern World (http://www.isim.ac.ne)  – academic articles with a global perspective

Some useful websites

Council for the Advancement of Arab-British Relations (http://www.caabu.org)

Community Cohesion (http://www.communitycohesion.gov.uk) – national policy and local case studies

Equalities Coalition (http://www.equalities.org) – news and views on the Single Equality Commission

Just World (http://www.just-international.org) – based in Malaysia, articles on roots and challenges of Islamophobia

HSBC (http://www.amanahfinance.hsbc.com) – home finance and banking in accordance with Shariah

National Union of Schoolmasters and Union of Women Teachers (http://www.nasuwt.org.uk)  – guidelines on combating Islamophobia in education

Social Science Research Council (http://www.ssrc.org/sept11/essays/) – a range of academic articles written shortly after 11 September

APENDIX 6:  General useful websites

http://www.muslimheritage.com/

www.muslimdirectory.co.uk

www.bbc.co.uk/religion

www.ummah.org.uk/what-is-islam

www.ummahnews.com

www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/
introduction/woi_toc.html

http://www.q-news.com/back.htm

http://www.masud.co.uk

www.irr.org.uk

www.liberty-human-rights.org.uk

www.blink.org.uk

www.runnymedetrust.org

www.muslimedia.com/mainpage.htm

www.islamicvoice.com

www.honestreports.com/islamophobia.asp

http://iisca.org/knowledge/
misc/islamophobia.htm

www.obv.org.uk

www.discoverislam.com

www.mcb.org.uk

www.cair-net.org

http://www.caabu.org/

www.adc.org

www.twf.org

www.cre.gov.uk

www.fair.org

http://islamicity.cjb.net

www.musalman.net

www.salaam.co.uk

http://christopherallen-online.moonfruit.com/

www.runnymedetrust.org/meb

www.runnymedetrust.org

www.interfaith.org.uk

http://www.connectforkids.org

www.dfes.gov.uk/11Septguidance

www.iqratrust.org

www.muslimnews.co.uk

http://www.q-news.com

www.islamic-foundation.org.uk

www.ihrc.org

www.islamfortoday.com

www.al-usrah.net

www.islam-usa.com

www.islamicsolutions.com

www.salaam.co.uk

www.cair-net.org

www.muslimdirectory.co.uk

www.bbc.co.uk/religion

www.ummah.org.uk/what-is-islam

www.ummahnews.com

http://www.masud.co.uk

www.ihrc.org

www.islamfortoday.com

www.al-usrah.net

www.islam-usa.com

Here are some really good E-Resoures about Islam.Forward This to everyone who might need to know more about Islam , Especially after September 11th incidents.

Download For Free The Translation of The Holly Qur’an and The Hadith
http://www.islamasoft.co.uk/downloads.html

A Comprehnsive site about Islam, Available in seven languages
www.al-islam.com 

Islam online (contemporary issues , news , and analyses about Islam )
www.islamonline.net 
 
Islam and Science
www.it-is-truth.org

————————————————————————————————————————

[1]          See for example Noorad (2002), Sardar and Davies (2002), Halliday (2002) and Said (1987).

[2]          There are examples in Allen and Nielsen (2002), and on the websites of the Forum Against Islamophobia and Racism, the Islamic Human Rights Commission and The Muslim News.

[3]          This particular insult was made by Denis MacShane MP, minister of state at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, in November 2003. It was compounded by the feebleness of his apology a few days later.  See, for example,

[4]          Daily Mail, 5 October 2001, cited in Villate-Compton (2002). See also Yarde (2001), who writes: I groan inwardly every time I read a headline in the popular press about our asylum “crisis”. I don’t need to read the text, I’ve read the story a hundred times: same words, same message, repackaged according to the demon of the day, then regurgitated as if the use of the same tired old metaphors were something new.’ The latest demon of the day, she adds, is Muslims.

[5]          Norman Tebbit, The Spectator, 27 April 2002.

[6]          The Muslim Weekly, 5-11 December 2003, p.11. The text on the poster read ‘Ali did not tell us his real name or his true nationality. He was arrested and sent to prison for 12 months.’ This statement was translated into five languages, all of them connected with Muslim countries. A detailed legal reference was given in small print but in fact the case that was cited had nothing to do with asylum and nationality claims.

[7]          One of the five examples was about a legal case that was sub judice at the time. A British Muslim had been arrested and charged but not yet tried or convicted.

[8]          There is further discussion in chapter 0. See, for example, the quotations in Box 0.

[9]          Presidential address at General Synod, York, 14 July 2003.

[10]        The sense of being under siege is global, not confined to Britain: see Ahmed (2003).

[11]        Modood (2002).

[12]        Davies (2002).

[13]        The idea of adapting the concept of institutional racism to Islamophobia was pioneered in training organised by the An-Nisa Society.

[14]        Commission on the Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain (2000)

[15]        The website of the Muslim Council of Britain (http://www.mcb.org.uk) has several examples of letters of complaint sent to national newspapers and the Press Complaints Commission, and of dismissive and unhelpful replies.

[16] On November 20, 2001,

[17] All major statements by the Archbishop can downloaded from www.archbishopofcanterbury.org/serpns-speeches

 

Part I http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2005jan_comments.php?id=558_0_31_30_C
Part II http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2005jan_comments.php?id=559_0_31_30_C
Part III http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2005jan_comments.php?id=560_0_31_30_C
Part IV http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2005jan_comments.php?id=561_0_31_30_C

 

 


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