Bediuzzaman Said Nursi’s Approach to the Environment - Footnotes

Bediuzzaman Said Nursi’s Approach to the Environment

by Ibrahim Ozdemir

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1. Skolimowski, Henryk, Eco-Philosophy: Ideas in Progress (Boston: Marion Boyars, 1981) 1. 
2. See, Skolimowski, 28-52. The concepts of environmental philosophy, eco-philosophy or environmental philosopher, eco-philosopher are used frequently and sometimes interchangeably in the relevant literature. Environmental philosophy believes that the concept itself and the philosophical viewpoint will have an important role to play in understanding environmental problems and overcoming them. For weighty tasks await philosophy in firstly understanding the true reason for environmental problems and then defining new methods of thought to overcome them. It should be stated moreover that the chief characteristic of environmental philosophy is its attempt to understand the subject and problems from a holistic point of view. See also, Blackstone, William, \“The Search for an Environmental Ethic,\” in Regan, Tom (ed.) Matters of Life and Death (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1980) 229; Naess, Arne, Ecology, Community, and Lifestyle - Outline of Ecophilosophy [Eng. trans: David Rothenberg] (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992) 36; Rothenberg, D., \“Does the ecology movement have a philosophy?\” in Social Policy, Winter, 1992. 
3. Ibid., 1. See also for the philosophical ideas underlying environmental problems, Özdemir, ibrahim, The Ethical Dimensions of Human Attitudes Towards Nature (Ankara: Çevre Bakanliği Yayinlari, 1997); Evernden, Neil, The Natural Alien: Humankind and the Environment (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1985); White, Lynn, \“The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis,\” in Jackson, Wes, and Wesleyan, Kansas, (eds.) Man and the Environment (Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown & Co., 1971); Merchant, Carolyn, The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology and the Scientific Revolution (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1980). 
4. Durali, Teoman, Biyoloji Felsefesi (Ankara: Akçağ, 1992) 160. 
5. See, Açikgenç, Alparslan, \“ilim Anlayişi ve ilimlerin Siniflandirilmasi Açisindan Risale-i Nurlar\‘in Bir Değerlendirmesi,\” in Uluslararasi Bediüzzaman Sempozyumu - 3 (istanbul: Yeni Asya Yayinlari, 1996) 485-490. [Eng. trans: \“An Evaluation of the Risale-i Nur from the Point of View of Knowledge and the Categorization of Knowledge,\” in Third International Symposium on Bediuzzaman Said Nursi (Istanbul: Sözler Publications, 1997) vol. ii, 101-116. 
6. The contemporary thinker with the best critical understanding of Locke\‘s theory and its conclusions is A. N. Whitehead. See, Whitehead, A. N., Science and the Modern World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; New York: Macmillan Co., 1926) 79-80. For a new interpretation and criticism of the theory, see, Griffin, David Ray, God and Religion in the Postmodern World: Essays in Postmodern Theology (Albany: SUNY Press, 1989) 16-17.
7. Durali describes the fundamental mental changeabout brought about by the Cartesian approach like this: \“Modern physics, which held matter to be fundamental, decided on the \‘Res extensa\’ part of Descartes\’ division of the world of existence into \‘Res cogitans\’ and \‘Res extensa,\’ and left \‘Res cogitans\’ out of it. This set attitude of physics resulted, particularly from the second half of the 18th century onwards, in gradually defining and moulding the intellectual life and world-view of Europe. The science that was then established took a form suitable to causal, quantitative, formal modern physics, and replaced the former science, which included purposive, qualitative, ancient physics. It took as its subject beings that could be measured and estimated, quantified and repeated, and were visible.\” The result of this approach was that \“all metaphysical (thus, immaterial) beings that could not be measured by means of customary observation and instruments, were stamped as being \‘imaginary,\’ \‘made-up,\’ or \‘tricks of the tongue.\’ Any mention, proposition, or assertion of the complementary \‘Res cogitans\’ was dismissed slightingly as \‘speculative\’ or \‘constructive.\’\” Ibid., 144.
8. Although the frequent use of the concept of \‘the absurd\’ has been made in various fields, it is existentialism that springs first to mind. For all the existentialist philosophers discussed \‘the absurd\’ in one form or another. A role characterizing existentialism was even attributed to the concept. A good example is Paul Foulquire\‘s definition of existentialism as \“the philosophy of the absurd.\” See, Koç, Emel, \“J. P. Sartre ve A. Camus Felsefelerinin Absürd (Saçma) Kavrami Açisindan De?erlendirilmesi,\” in Felsefe Dünyasi, 27, Yaz, 1998, p. 54.
9. According to Sartre, just as the world was not created by God, so it is impossible to explain a being for which there is no intrinsic cause and for whose existence there is no principle. Since there is no reason for its existence, it is absurd. Since its existence is without base or support, it is also \“superfluous.\” See, Koç, p. 57. One may see this in the words of Roquentin, the hero of his novel Nausea: \“We were a mass of beings wearied and made uncomfortable by our egos… There was no reason for any of us, or any of them, to be there. Every being who felt shame or anxiety saw himself superfluous before the others. Superfluous. This is the only relationship I could form among these trees, these bars, these pebbles.\” Sartre, Bulanti [Turk. trans. S. Tiryakio?lu] (Istanbul: 1983), 141. For the philosophical problems arising from Sartre\‘s philosophy, see, Gürsoy, Kenan, J. P. Sartre Ateizmi\‘nin Do?urdu?u Problemler (Ankara: 1987).
10. See, Camus, Albert, The Stranger (New York: Vintage Books, 1996). For Camus\’ views on the same subject and for his philosophy of the absurd, see, The Myth of Sisyphus and Other Essays [trans: J. O\‘Brien] (New York: Vintage Books, 1960) 5. 21. 36-38. 45; The Rebel: An Essay on Man in Revolt [trans: A. Bouet] (New York: Vintage Books, 1956) 21, 100-103. See also, Glynn, Patrick, \“Beyond the Death of God,\” in National Review, vol. 48 (May 6, 1996). For Dostoevsky\‘s views concerning the conclusions of the philosophy of the absurd, see, The Brothers Karamazov [trans: C. Garnett] (New York: The Modern Library, 1942) 299-301. For another discussion of Camus, see, Tunali, ismail, \“Kurtarici Olarak Ça?da? Felsefe ve Ça?da? Sanat,\” in Gürsoy, Kenan, & Açikgenç, Alparslan, (eds.) Türkiye\‘de 1. Felsefe Mantik Bilim Sempozyumu Bildirileri (Ankara: Ülke Yayin Haber, 1992) 131.
11. Garaudy, Roger, islam ve insanli?in Gelece?i [Turk. trans: Cemal Aydin] (istanbul: Pinar Yayinlari, 1990) 29 (my italics).
12. Darwin\‘s theory should be recalled here, which stresses that life is a struggle and particularly that the strong have the right to life. The theory did not stop at basing nature and evolution on these, through Social Darwinism it paved the way for the powerful Western countries to exploit the weak countries and nations, and govern them. It is for these reasons that Darwinism has been subject to criticism, both as a theory and for its social consequences. See, Capra, Fritjof, The Turning Point, 44-45; Pepper, David, The Roots of Modern Environmentalism, 100-103.
13. Toynbee, Arnold \’ Ikeda, Daisaku, Ya?ami Seçin [Turk. trans: Umut Arik] (Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Basimevi, 1992) 45 (my italics). See also, Özdemir, ibrahim, Çevre ve Din (Ankara: Çevre Bakanli?i Yayinlari, 1997) 74-75. The Japanese thinker Ikeda holds views similar to this, but he goes even further, saying: \“Modern scientific-technological civilization has almost entirely let free the reins of man\‘s greed; it is in fact the product of his untrammelled material greed, and so long as all of us do not clearly understand this and judge accordingly, we shall not be able to halt the destruction of our natural environment and prevent the possible extinction of humanity.\” (Ya?ami Seçin, 42).
14. From, 282. In another work, Dostoevsky says: \“If there is no God, then I am God. If God does exist, everything occurs through His will and I can\‘t escape from it. If it is not thus, everything is my wish and I have to demonstrate my will.\” He thus investigated the relation between God\‘s existence and moral values. See, Dostoevsky, Fyodor, The Possessed [trans: C. Garnett] (New York: E. P. Dutton \’ Co, Everyman\‘s Library, vol. ii, 1931) 253 ff. For Dostoevsky\‘s views on the results of the philosophy of the absurd, see, The Brother\‘s Karamazov [trans: C. Garnett] (New York: The Modern Library, 1942) 299-301.
15. Nursî, Bediüzzaman Said, Muhakemat (Istanbul: Envar Neşriyat, 1995) 119-120.
16. See, Muhsin \‘Abd al-Hamid, \“Bediuzzaman Said Nursi: the Kalam Scholar of the Modern Age,\” in Third International Symposium on Bediuzzaman Said Nursi [Eng. trans.] (Istanbul: Sözler Publications, 1997) ii, 429 ff.
17. In Jawahir al-Qur\‘an, which Imam Ghazali wrote after Ihya\’, he discusses the Qur\‘an\‘s emphasis on the universe in connection with God\‘s existence and the manifestations of His Most Beautiful Names. He says that there are around 763 such verses, particularly in the Mecca suras, and that they may be seen as the heart of the Qur\‘an. For other verses concern individuals or particular situations, but the verses about God, and this world and the next are universal and concern everyone. See, Imam Gazali, Cevahir-ul Kur\‘an: Varliklarin Yaratili? Hikmetleri [Turk. trans: Aksu, Hasan \’ Sirada?, Mürsel] (Istanbul: Dede Korkut Yayinlari, 1971); Ihyau Ulumi\‘d-Din [Turk. trans: Serdaro?lu, Ahmed] (Istanbul: Bedir Yayinevi, 1975) iv (Tefekkür Kitabi), 759.
18. As is well known, Allama Muhammad Iqbal\‘s most important project was the reconstruction of Islamic thought. In distinction to the classical Islamic philosophers, he based this on the Qur\‘an. See, Ikbal, Muhammed, Dinî Dü?üncenin Yeniden in?asi [Turk. trans: Asrar, Ahmed] (Istanbul: Birle?ik Yayincilik). For a comparison of the ideas of Iqbal and Said Nursi, see, Jalalizade, Jalal, \“A Comparison of the Thought of Bediuzzaman and Muhammad Iqbal,\” in Third International Symposium on Bediuzzaman Said Nursi [Eng. trans.] (Istanbul: Sözler Publications, 1997) ii, 160-173.
19. See, Bediüzzaman Said Nursî, Tarihçe-i Hayati; ?ahiner, Necmeddin, Bilinmeyen Taraflariyle Bediüzzaman Said Nursî; ?ahiner, Son ?ahitler, 5 vols.; Badilli, Abdülkadir, Bediüzzaman Said-i Nursî, Mufassal Tarihçe-i Hayati, 3 vols; Erdem, Rahmi, Davam.
20. See, Mardin, Şerif, Religion and Social Change in Modern Turkey, The Case of Bediuzzaman Said Nursi (Albany: SUNY Press, 1989).
21. Nursî, Bediüzzaman Said, Latif Nükteler (Istanbul: Sözler Yayinevi, 1988) 5-11. English trans. in The Flashes Collection (Istanbul: Sözler Publications, 1995) 339-343.
22. Nursî, Bediüzzaman Said, işaratü\‘l-i\‘caz (Istanbul: Envar Neşriyat, 1995) 12.
23. Nursî, Bediüzzaman Said, Sözler (Istanbul: Envar Neşriyat, 1996) 627 / The Words [Eng. trans.] (Istanbul: Sözler Publications, new ed. 1998) 655.
24. Sözler, 351-2 / The Words, 361.
25. For the anthropocentric view, see, Özdemir, ibrahim, \”Çevre Hukukunun Anthropocentric Karakteri,\” in Felsefe Dünyasi, No: 27, 1998, 68-80. See also, art. \“Anthropocentrism,\” in Angeles, Peter Adam, Dictionary of Philosophy (London: Harper \’ Row, 1981); Callicot, Baird, \“Non-Anthropocentric Value Theory and Environmental Ethics,\” in American Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 21, No. 4, October 1984, 299.
26. Sözler, 75 / The Words, 86 fn 20. See also, Sözler, 625-6 / The Words, 653-4.
27. Sözler, 86 / The Words, 98-9 (my italics). In reply to the possible question: \“Why do your parables consist chiefly of flowers, seeds and fruits,\” he replies: \“they are the most wondrous, remarkable and delicate of the miracles of God\‘s power. Moreover, since naturalists, philosophers and the people of misguidance have been unable to read the subtle script written upon them by the pen of destiny and power, they have choked on them, and fallen into the swamp of nature.\” (The Words, 99 fn 31.)
28. Qur\‘an, 17:44.
29. \“We declare God, Who is concealed in the intensity of His manifestation, to be free of all fault and deficiency.\”
30. Qur\‘an, 3:62; 42:5; 30:54; etc.
31. Sözler, 631 / The Words, 660.
32. Sözler, 137 / The Words, 150.
33. For relations between man and nature in Sufism, and the views of leading Sufi figures, see, Schimmel, Annemarie, Deciphering the Signs of God: A Phenomenal Approach to Islam (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1994); Nasr, S. Hossein, Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines (London: 1978); Sufi Essays (Albany: SUNY Press, 1991); Religion and the Order of Nature (Oxford \’ New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).
34. Nursî, Bediüzzaman Said, Mesnevi-i Nuriye [Turk. trans: Abdülmecid Nursî] (Istanbul: Envar Neşriyat, 1994)) 51.
35. Some scholars have described Bediuzzaman\‘s use of these concepts in a new, effective manner in the works of the period of his life known as the New Said as \“mytho-poetic,\” and asserted that the power and influence of the Risale-i Nur springs from this. See, Mardin, ibid., 17, 181, 205, 207, 217. By stating that in the New Said\‘s works, his ideas of the former period were developed and expounded in more detailed manner, Bediuzzaman was saying that the former works were \“a sort of seed and nursery of the Risale-i Nur.\” See, Mesnevi-i Nuriye, 8.
36. Nursî, Barla Lahikasi (Istanbul: Envar Neşriyat, 1994), 348. \“According to the apparent meaning of things, which looks to each thing itself, everything is transitory, lacking, accidental, non-existent. But according to the meaning that signifies something other than itself and in respect of each thing being a mirror to the All-Glorious Maker\‘s Names and charged with various duties, each is a witness, it is witnessed, and it is existent.\”(Sözler, 478 / The Words, 493. For the three faces of the world, see, Sözler, 625-6 / The Words, 653-4. \“Love this world and the creatures in it as pointing to a meaning beyond themselves, like a word. Do not love them just for themselves. Say, \‘How beautifully they have been made.\’ Do not say, \‘How beautiful they are.\’ Do not give any opportunity to other loves to enter into your inner heart, because the inner heart is the mirror of the Eternally Besought One and pertains only to Him.\” (Sözler, 640 / The Words, 670)
37. Barla Lahikasi, 335.
38. Mesnevi-i Nuriye, 14.
39. Nursî, Lem\‘alar (Istanbul: Envar Neşriyat, 1996) 311-2 / The Flashes Collection, 404-5.
40. Lem\‘alar, 316 / The Flashes Collection, 410.
41. Muhakemat, 13-14.
42. We should here take note of the concept of heedlessness. The famous quote from a famous Sufi may assist in understanding it. Bayezid al-Bistami was asked how old he was. He replied that he was four years old. When asked what this meant, he said: \“For seventy years this world prevented me from seeing God [heedlessness, not realizing]. It is only the past four years that I have been able to see Him. A person cannot be said to be alive so long as he does not see God.\” (Nicholson, R., islam Sufileri, 48. While Niffari said: \“God imparted to me: closeness to God is least of the sciences, it is your seeing the traces of observing Me in everything. And this observing Me governs in you to an extent greater than knowing Me.\”
43. Nursi describes this as follows: \“Since the Old Said proceeded more in the rational and philosophical sciences, he started to look for a way to the essence of reality like that of the Sufis (ehl-i tarikat) and the mystics (ehl-i hakikat). But he was not content to proceed with the heart only like the Sufis, for his intellect and thought were to a degree wounded by philosophy; a cure was needed. Then, he wanted to follow some of the great mystics, who approached reality with both the heart and the mind. He looked, and each of them had different points of attraction. He was bewildered as to which of them to follow. Imam-i Rabbani imparted to him from behind the veil of the Unseen: \‘Take only one as your qibla.\’ That is, \‘Follow only one master.\’ It occurred to the much-wounded heart of the Old Said that \‘the Qur\‘an is the true master. It should be the one master to follow.\’ Then through the guidance of that sacred master both his heart and his spirit started to \‘journey\’ in truly strange fashion, while through its doubts and misgivings his evil-commanding soul compelled him to struggle both spiritually and on the level of scholarship. He journeyed through the stations that those immersed in Divine contemplation journeyed with the eyes closed, but like Imam Ghazali, Mawlana Jalaluddin, and Imam-i Rabbani with the eyes of the heart, spirit, and intellect open. All thanks be to God Almighty, through the instruction and guidance of the Qur\‘an, he found a way to reality and entered upon it. In fact, he showed through the Risale-i Nur of the New Said that it reflected the truth expressed by the saying \‘And in everything is a sign indicating that He is One.\’\” (Mesnevi-i Nuriye, 7) In other contexts Said Nursi again insists that in distinction to the great Islamic philosophers and certain Sufis, the Qur\‘an was fundamental to his way: \“If you say: \‘Who do think you are to challenge these famous philosophersş You are like a mere fly and yet you meddle in the flight of eagles,\’ I would reply: \‘While having a pre-eternal teacher like the Qur\‘an, in matters concerning truth and the knowledge of God, I do not have to attach as much value as that of a fly\‘s wing to those eagles, who are the students of misguided philosophy and deluded intellect. However inferior I am to them, their teacher is a thousand times inferior to mine. With the help of my teacher, whatever caused them to become submerged did not so much as dampen my toes. An insignificant private who acts in accordance with the laws and commands of a great king is able to achieve more than a great field marshal of an insignificant king…\’\”(The Words, 568 fn 19)
44. Mesnevi-i Nuriye, 247.
45. It may be said that Said Nursi\‘s project is the reestablishment of belief in God and the other truths of belief. The following reply he gave to criticism of this is noteworthy, for it sets out both the true nature of belief, and the parameters for the relations between man, the universe, and God that should result from such belief: \”... some hypocrites of anarchist persuasion who have fallen prey to utter unbelief wish cunningly to deprive everyone of the truths of the faith that are contained in the Risale-i Nur and are as essential to man as bread and water. They say: \‘Every nation and every individual knows God; we have no great need for new instruction in this matter.\’ \“To know God, however, means to have certain belief in His dominicality encompassing all beings, and in all things, particular and universal, from the atoms to the stars, being in the grasp of His power, action, and will; it means believing in the truths of the sacred words, \‘There is no god but God,\’ and assenting to them with one\‘s heart. For simply to say, \‘God exists,\’ and then to divide His sovereignty among causes and Nature and attribute it to them; to recognize causes as sources of authority, as if -God forbid- they were partners to God; to fail to perceive His will and knowledge as present with all things; to refuse to recognize His strict commands, and to reject His attributes, and the messengers and prophets He has sent - this has nothing to do with the reality of belief in God. The person who does all this, then says \‘God exists,\’ does so only in order to find some relief from the torment he suffers in the world after his unbelief has made it a hell for him. Not to deny is one thing; to believe is something completely different. \“No being endowed with consciousness, in the whole universe, can indeed deny the All-Glorious Creator to Whom every particle of existence bears witness. Or if he does make such a denial, he will be rebuffed by all of creation, and hence become silent and diffident. But believing in Him is, as the Qur\‘an of Mighty Stature informs us, to assent in one\‘s heart to the Creator with all of His attributes and Names, supported by the testimony of the whole universe; to recognize the messengers He has sent and the commands He has promulgated; and to make sincere repentance and feel genuine regret for every sin and act of disobedience. Conversely, to commit every kind of sin, and then never to seek pardon for it or concern oneself with it, is a sure sign of the absence of any element of faith.\” See, The Key to Belief (Istanbul: Sözler Publications, new edn. 1998) 100-2.
46. Qur\‘an, 20:8.
47. Sözler, 333 / The Words, 342.
48. Sözler, 334 / The Words, 343. This approach of Said Nursi was reflected in his supplications. The picture he draws of the universe in the following quote forms an interesting example: \“Glory be to the One Who made the earth the exhibition of His art, the gathering place of His creatures, the manifestation of His power, the means of His wisdom, the garden of His mercy, the arable field of His Paradise, the place of passage of creatures, the place through which beings flow, the measure of His artefacts. The embellished animals, the decorated birds, the trees made fruitful, the plants adorned with flowers are miracles of His knowledge, marvels of His fashioning, gifts of His munificence, proofs of His grace. Blossoms smiling with the adornment of fruits, birds singing in the early morning breeze, rain pattering on the petals of flowers, mothers tenderly embracing their small young, all make known One All-Loving, make loved One Most Merciful, Most Kind and Generous to jinn and man, to spirit beings, the angels, and to animals.\” (The Flashes Collection, 384-5)
49. The following is an interesting anecdote about animals\’ glorification of God in intelligible fashion: \“Even, one day I looked at the cats; all they were doing was eating, playing, and sleeping. I wondered: how is it these little monsters which perform no duties are known as blessed. Later, I lay down to sleep for the night. I looked; one of the cats had come. It lay against my pillow and put its mouth against my ear, and murmuring: \‘O Most Compassionate One! O Most Compassionate One!\’ in the most clear manner, as though refuted in the name of its species the objection and insult which had occurred to me, throwing it in my face. Then this occurred to me: I wonder if this recitation is particular to this cat, or is it general among cats? And is it only an unfair objector like me who hears it, or if anyone listens carefully, can they hear it? The next morning I listened to the other cats; it was not so clearly, but to varying degrees they were repeating the same invocation. At first, \‘O Most Compassionate!\’ was discernible following their purring. Then gradually their purrings and meaowings became the same \‘O Most Merciful!\’ It became an unarticulated, eloquent and sorrowful recitation. They would close their mouths and utter a fine \‘O Most Compassionate!\’ I related the story to the brothers who visited me, and they listened carefully as well, and said that they heard it to an extent.\” (Sözler, 334 / The Words, 343 fn 2)
50. One may here see the various understandings and ways of reading in the Islamic tradition to be its paths, ways, and schools, and considering them from \‘a pluralist\’ point of view, place them within the Islamic tradition. To put it another way, a pluralist point of view is part and parcel of this way of defining the Names. The distinguishing mark of this point of view is its being all-embracing and inclusive, rather than exclusive. If one keeps in mind the example Said Nursi gave for Jesus (PUH), one may see it to furnish possible grounds for dialogue between religions, cultures, and civilizations.
51. Lem\‘alar, 185 / The Flashes Collection, 242.
52. Lem\‘alar, 186 / The Flashes Collection, 244.
53. Lem\‘alar, 185 / The Flashes Collection, 243.
54. Lem\‘alar, 84 / The Flashes Collection, 119.
55. Lem\‘alar, 86 / The Flashes Collection, 122.
56. The stories of the prophets in the Qur\‘an, such as the fire not burning Abraham, the sea opening up for Moses but drowing Pharaoh, Moses\’ staff and the water flowing forth when the rock was struck by it, and the moon splitting in two at the sign of Muhammad (PBUH), show the universe to be living and almost conscious, heeding God\‘s commands and at His command acting differently towards His prophets. See, the First and Twentieth Words.
57. Lem\‘alar, 305 / The Flashes Collection, 396.
58. Lem\‘alar, 305-6 / The Flashes Collection, 397.
59. Lem\‘alar, 307 / The Flashes Collection, 399. The importance the Prophet attached to cleanliness is well-known. It is also no coincidence that the first sections in all the books on fiqh (jurisprudence) are related to purification (tahara), as is true for the six books of Hadith making up the al-Kutub al-Sitte. For Qur\‘anic verses and Hadiths related to cleanliness and purification see, Özdemir, ibrahim, Çevre ve Din (Ankara: Çevre Bakanliği, 1997); Canan, ibrahim, Çevre Ahlaki (Istanbul: Nesil Yayinlari, 1996).
60. See, Durali, 154. For the concept of the new physics and its results, see, Capra, Fritjof, The Turning Point (London: Bantam Books, 1982), 75-99; Heisenberg, Werner, \“The Development of Philosophical Ideas Since Descartes in Comparison with the New Situation in Quantum Theory,\” in The Revolution in Modern Science (New York: Harper \’ Row, 1958); Callicot, \“Intrinsic Value, Quantum Theory and Environmental Ethics,\” in Environmental Ethics, 7, 1985, 257-275; Beck, L. J., The Metaphysics of Descartes: A Study of Meditations (Oxford: 1965); Özdemir, ibrahim, The Ethical Dimensions of Human Attitudes Towards Nature (Ankara: Ministry of the Environment, 1977), 52.
61. Lem\‘alar, 308 / The Flashes Collection, 401.
62. In Said Nursi\‘s view, if those who find it difficult to believe in the resurrection of the dead were to note carefully what was happening around them, they could be saved from their predicament: \“If someone who does not believe or deems it unlikely that the deeds of jinn and men will be weighed up on the supreme scales of justice at the Last Judgement notes carefully this vast balance which he can see in this world with his own eyes, he will surely no longer consider it unlikely.\” (Lema\‘lar, 309 / The Flashes Collection, 402. The italics are mine.)
63. Şükran Vahide, \“Risale-i Nur\‘daki Kainat Tasviri, Newtoncu Mekanik Kainat Modellerine Benzemez,\” in Yeni Dergi [Ankara] No: 4, 1994, 17.
64. Lem\‘alar, 309-310 / The Flashes Collection, 402.
65. Lem\‘alar, 163 / The Flashes Collection, 217. 
66. Muhakemat, 134.