A Long History of Injustice Ignored:  The Case of Jerusalem - The Holy City - Notes

Notes:

[1]. http://www.afsc.org/israel-palestine/learn/timeline.htm

[2]. http://www.countercurrents.org/pa-pmc150604.htm

[3]. See this authors article- Jerusalem Summit: What are the neo-cons cooking?

[4]. Redefining the Palestinian Problem by Martin Sherman, 27 August 2005, www.jerusalemsummit.org

[5]. See, e.g., Jerusalem Post Magazine, 1.9.1995 on Hebrew University Professor MazarҒs work.

[6]. http://www.vision.org/jrnl/0310/bvkenyon.html

[7]. Jerusalem, An Archaeological Biography, p.49

[8]. In the Shadow of the Temple, p.64

[9]. http://www.alternativeinsight.com/Jerusalem_revisited.html

[10]. Israel Zangwill, The Return to Palestine,Ӕ New Liberal Review, December 1901, p. 627.

[11]. See, e.g., Daniel Pipess essay: ғThe Muslim Claim to Jerusalem, Middle East Quarterly, September 2001.

[12]. See this authorԒs essay on explanation of the Biblical verse Malachi 3:1 in soc.religion.misc (1992); lecture on Muhammad in the World Scriptures,Ӕ Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania, February 18, 1995.

[13]. Islam, the West and Jerusalem by Walid Khalidi (http://www.acj.org/w_khalidi.htm)

[14]. For quotations from the Bible, the author is using the Authorized King James Version.

[15]. Roger Garaudy, The Case of Israel: A Study of Political Zionism, Shorouk International (UK) Limited (1983), p. 34.

[16]. See, Khalid Baigs article - Jerusalem: History Lessons (Aqsa), www.albalagh.net

[17]. See, e.g., the Zionist historians quoted in Daniel PipesҒs article quoted earlier. See also: Wansbrough, J., Quranic Studies: Sources and Methods of Scriptural Interpretation, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1977; The Sectarian Milieu: Content and Composition of Islamic Salvation History, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1978. (See Estelle Whelans work for a refutation of WansbroughҒs thesis in the Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1998, Volume 118, pp. 1-14.: http://www.islamic-awareness.org/History/Islam/
Dome_Of_The_Rock/Estwitness.html)


[18]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerusalem

[19]. Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah was the sixth Fatimid dynasty. He was insane who claimed that he was a reincarnation of God. The Druze sect believes in his divinity. They believe that he did not die but vanished and will one day return in triumph to inaugurate a golden age.

[20]. Edward Peters, The First Crusade: The chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres and other source materials, p. 214.

[21]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Jerusalem

[22]. A Social Profile of Jerusalem before 1948: The Growth of the Western Communities (Rochelle Davis); http://www.bma-alqods.org/englishsite/jerus-48.htm

[23]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerusalem

[24]. Roger Garaudy, op. cit., p. 35.

[25]. The Dreyfus case would later motivate Theodor Herzl to write the book Jewish State,Ӕ responsible for initiating the Zionist movement.

[26]. The Dnme are descendants of the Jewish followers of a self-proclaimed messiah, Sabbatai Sebi (or Zevi, 1626-76), who was forced by the sultan to convert to Islam in 1666. Their doctrine includes Jewish and Islamic elements. They consider themselves Muslims and officially are recognized as such.

[27]. See this authors lecture/essay: 撓The Turkish Experiment with Westernization (pub. Media Monitors Network).

[28]. http://eng.islam.ru/pressclub/history/letter/

[29]. Walid Khalidi, op. cit.

[30]. Arthur Koestler, Promise and Fulfillment, London, 1949.

[31]. Garaudy, op. cit., p. 38.

[32]. Study presented by Georgetown History Professor Hisham Sharabi at the Senate Sub-committee on Near East on September 30, 1975; also see The Palestinians: Selected Essays, ed. Hussaini and El-Boghdadi, Arab Information Center, Washington D.C. (1976), p. 41.

[33]. Presented at the Committee on International Affairs of the House of Representatives on September 30, 1975 by Professor Edward Said, Remarks on the Palestinians, Selected Essays, ed. Hussaini and El-Boghdadi, Arab Information Center, Washington D.C. (1976), p. 50.

[34]. Zionist terrorist gangs - Irgun and Stern Ԗ rejected the plan, much in contrast to the official Jewish position that accepted the plan. As is witnessed by the Haganah’s Plan Dalet, the Jewish leadership was determined to link the envisaged Jewish state with the Jerusalem corpus separatum (the so-called international zone). But the corpus separatum lay deep in Arab territory, in the middle of the envisaged Palestinian state, so this linking up could only be done militarily. Thus, according to Walid Khalidi, As of early April 1948—before the end of the British Mandate and before the entry of the regular Arab armies - the Jewish forces launched two major military offensive for the conquest of Jerusalem: Palestinian state, and the other starting from the Jewish quarters within the city itself. It was in the course of the second offensive that the whole of today’s West Jerusalem fell to the Haganah and that the massacre of Dayr Yasin at the hand of the Irgun and Stern groups led by Begin and Shamir respectively was perpetrated. Even before the end of the Mandate on 15 May 1948, Haganah’s objective was the conquest not only of the whole of municipal Jerusalem but of the larger area of the corpus separatum itself. It was thwarted only by the last-minute intervention of the Arab Legion of Transjordan under Kind Abdallah, grandfather of King Hussein. Thus present-day Jewish control of West Jerusalem and of a so-called ӑcorridor linking it to the coast was achieved by military conquest in violation of the UN partition resolution that gave birth to the Jewish state itself.Ҕ (op. cit.)

[35]. http://www.bma-alqods.org/englishsite/jerus-48.htm (see articles by Rochelle Jones and Nathan Krystall)

[36]. During the British Mandate period, there was a deliberate attempt by the British to help the Zionist cause. In their redrawn map, they included far-flung Jewish settlements, some of them 4 or 5 kilometers away from the heart of old Jerusalem, while they excluded adjacent Arab neighborhoods like Silwan, l-Tur and al-Aizariya. Even then with such an altered boundary, in 1922 the Jewish population was only slightly higher than Arab population.

[37]. Justin McCarthy, The Population of Palestine (New York: Columbia UP, 1990)

[38]. See papers presented at the Institute of Jerusalem Studies Symposium: Contemporary Research Trends on the History of Jerusalem, Dec. 16, 2000 (http://www.acj.org/resources/khalidi/w_history.htm)

[39]. Walid Khalidi, op. cit.

[40]. Michael Dumper, The Politics of Jerusalem (New York: Columbia UP, 1997), pp. 61-62.

[41]. http://www.jqf-jerusalem.org/1999/jqf3/tamari.html

[42]. http://www.bma-alqods.org/englishsite/jerus-48.htm

[43]. As to the de-Arabization of Jerusalem and its neighborhoods by Zionist terrorist gangs і Irgun and Haganah, see the report by Nathan Krystal where he says, At first the Haganah targeted the mixed neighbourhoods such as Romema, Sheikh Badr (the current site of the Knesset). Lifta. and the houses around the British Shneller military camp, and tried to pressure Arabs to vacate these areas through psychological warfare and by blowing up buildings on the pretext that they served as bases for Arab military actions. The bombing of the Semiramis Hotel on 4 January 1948 began the Arab exodus from Katamon and Talbiyeh. Concomitant with the Haganah’s campaign to clear Arabs from the Western neighborhoods was their settling by Jews. With the settling of Sheikh Badr by Jews, this area became an extended part of Romema and the entrance to Jerusalem from Tel Aviv had been successfully transformed into an Arab free zone. In mid February 1948 Arab villagers abandoned Beit Safafa, and residents - first of all the economically well off - of Talbiyeh, Musrara, Baq’a, Deir Abu Tor and Katamon started to leave. In contradiction to what is usually presented by Zionist historians, the Arab Higher Committee also called people to stay put in the Arab neighborhoods and not to leave. There was a pattern of collusion between the labor Zionist Haganah forces and the right wing Irgun and Lehi forces in the sense that the latter’s actions were usually condemned by the Haganah, but - at the same time - served Haganah aims (including the Deir Yassin Massacre). On 6 April 1948, the Haganah launched -Operation Nahshon designed to open the access road to Jerusalem which was then successfully controlled by local forces of Palestinian irregulars led by Abdel Qadir al-Husseini. Operation Nahshon resulted erasing of the Palestinian villages outside of the city (from Beit Mahsir in the west to Kolonia and Qastal in the east and was a watershed for the Zionist forces on the way to Jerusalem. Its counterpart in the city was the massacre of 254 Deir Yass’m villagers on 9 April 1948. The massacre immediately provoked a mass flight of Arab Jerusalem residents, particularly those who could afford to relocate quickly. Operation Jebussi (22 April - early May 1948) followed by Operation Kalshon aimed occupy the parts of the city the British had evacuated towards the end of its mandate in Palestine. These operations resulted in the occupation of Sheikh Jarrah, the American Colony, Bab al-Zahera, Wadi Joz, Deir Abu Tor, Katamon (1 May 1948) and Baq’a (16 May 1948).

After the fall of the Arab neighborhoods of Western Jerusalem in May 1948, only about 750 non-Jews remained in this area. Almost all of the Arabs among them were concentrated and confined to Upper Baq’a. Extensive looting of the empty Arab homes began with the first cease-fire in June.Ӕ( http://www.bma-alqods.org/englishsite/jerus-48.htm)

In his book The Revolt Menachem Begin wrote that without the massacre of Arabs in Deir Yasin there would not have been a State of Israel.

[44]. http://www.bma-alqods.org/englishsite/jerus-48.htm; see also the book - Jerusalem 1948 : The Arab Neighbourhoods and their Fate in the War, ed. Salim Tamari, Institute for Palestine Studies.

[45]. ibid.

[46]. http://www.caabu.org/press/factsheets/Jerusalem.pdf

[47]. Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem Municipality, Israel, Population File, 1996

[48]. CAABU Fact Sheet: Jerusalem, September 2003.

[49]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Jerusalem

[50]. More Settlements under Barak by Francoise Perreault The Other Front January/February 2000

[51]. CAABU Fact Sheet: Jerusalem, September 2003

[52]. http://www.caabu.org/press/factsheets/Jerusalem.pdf

[53]. PBS Program, shown in 2005.

[54]. See Le Monde, 15 October 1971 for the context.

[55]. Garaudy, op. cit., p. 71.

[56]. See, e.g., Gary Norths ғForeign Policy of 20 Million Would-be Immortals, http://www.lewrockwell.com/north/north188.html


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